Title: Adipogenesis in fetal pig subcutaneous adipose tissue: Remarkable developmental features before the onset of adipogenesis Author
Submitted to: Adipobiology (ISSN 1313-3705)- An International Journal of Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease Official Journal of the Bulgarian Society for Cell Biology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: August 17, 2012
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Fat tissue contains high numbers of fat cells and is found in in various body locations. Fat cells have been associated with consumption of excess calorie resulting in excess fat deposition in meat animals and humans leading to a variety of metabolic maladies like diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The formation of fat tissue involves many other cells and many cellular processes. Blood vessel cells and fat cell precursors develop closely together and play an important role in fat cell formation and fat location physiology. Formation and function of blood vessels and connective tissue may initiate the formation of fat tissues. Therefore understanding the regulation of blood vessel and connective tissue cells per se may lead to mechanisms to preferentially control fat deposition in meat animals.
Technical Abstract: The collection of investigations indicate the importance of adipose tissue architecture to vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during adipogenesis is reviewed. Early in development the architecture and vascular structure develops before overt adipocyte differentiation. Adipocyte development and the expanding and elaborating vascularity are closely linked during adipocyte cluster growth. Furthermore, fetal adipose tissue studies show that location-dependent angiogenic potential ranges from more to less in regards to the extent of endothelial cells and developing arterioles present before overt adipogenesis. Fetal adipose tissue cells express and secrete numerous factors that may initiate the development of adipose tissue architecture and associated developmental gradients. Possibly, the neural connection between hypothalamic neurons and adipose tissue represent part of a regulatory pathway between the hypothalamus and and adipose tissue development via neural driven patterns of blood vessel development. Finally, small blood vessels in fetal adipose tissue may phagocytos and metabolize circulating lipids in the absence of differentiated adipocytes. Therefore, several aspects of the stromal and vascular components of adipose tissue may play critical roles in the timing and distribution of developing adipose tissue.