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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IMPACT OF EARLY DIETARY FACTORS ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH

Location: Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center

Title: Lactation and neonatal nutrition: Defining and refining the critical questions

Authors
item Neville, M -
item Anderson, S -
item Mcmanaman, J -
item Badger, Thomas
item Bunik, M -
item Contractor, N -
item Crume, T -
item Dabelea, D -
item Donovan, S -
item Forman, N -
item Frank, D -
item Friedman, J -
item German, J -
item Goldman, A -
item Hadsell, D -
item Hambidge, M -
item Hinde, K -
item Horseman, N -
item Hovey, R -
item Janoff, E -
item Drebs, N -
item Lebrilla, C -
item Leman, D -
item Maclean, P -
item Meier, P -
item Morrow, A -
item Neu, J -
item Nommsen-Rivers, L -
item Raiten, D -
item Rijnkels, M -
item Seewaldt, V -
item Shur, B -
item Vanhouten, J -
item Williamson, P -

Submitted to: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 6, 2012
Publication Date: August 22, 2012
Citation: Neville, M.C., Anderson, S.M., McManaman, J.L., Badger, T.M., Bunik, M., Contractor, N., Crume, T., Dabelea, D., Donovan, S.M., Forman, N., Frank, D.N., Friedman, J.E., German, J.B., Goldman, A., Hadsell, D., Hambidge, M., Hinde, K., Horseman, N.D., Hovey, R.C., Janoff, E., Drebs, N.F., Lebrilla, C.B., Leman, D.G., Maclean, P.S., Meier, P., Morrow, A.L., Neu, J., Nommsen-Rivers, L.A., Raiten, D.J., Rijnkels, M., Seewaldt, V., Shur, B.D., Vanhouten, J., Williamson, P. 2012. Lactation and neonatal nutrition: Defining and refining the critical questions. Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. 17(2):167-188.

Interpretive Summary: Breast feeding is recommended for newborn infants by the American Academy of Pediatrics, but much still remains to learn about the health effects of breast milk. This paper resulted from a conference to identify unresolved questions and set future goals for research into human milk composition, mammary development, and lactation. We first outlined the unanswered questions regarding the composition of human milk (Section I) and the mechanisms by which milk components affect neonatal development, growth, and health, and recommended models for future research. Emerging questions about how milk components affect cognitive development and behavioral phenotype of the offspring are presented in Section II. In Section III we outlined the important unanswered questions about regulation of mammary gland development, the heritability of defects, the effects of maternal nutrition, disease, metabolic status, and therapeutic drugs upon the subsequent lactation. In Section IV, we described the specific nutritional challenges faced by three different populations, namely preterm infants, infants born to obese mothers who may or may not have gestational diabetes, and infants born to undernourished mothers. The recognition that multidisciplinary training is critical to advancing the field led us to formulate specific training recommendations in Section V. Our recommendations for research emphasis are summarized in Section VI. In summary, we present a roadmap for multidisciplinary research into all aspects of human lactation, milk, and its role in infant nutrition for the next decade and beyond.

Technical Abstract: This paper resulted from a conference entitled "Lactation and Milk: Defining and Refining the Critical Questions" held at the University of Colorado School of Medicine from January 18-20, 2012. The mission of the conference was to identify unresolved questions and set future goals for research into human milk composition, mammary development, and lactation. We first outline the unanswered questions regarding the composition of human milk (Section I) and the mechanisms by which milk components affect neonatal development, growth, and health, and we recommend models for future research. Emerging questions about how milk components affect cognitive development and behavioral phenotype of the offspring are presented in Section II. In Section III we outline the important unanswered questions about regulation of mammary gland development, the heritability of defects, the effects of maternal nutrition, disease, metabolic status, and therapeutic drugs upon the subsequent lactation. Questions surrounding breastfeeding practice are also highlighted. In Section IV we describe the specific nutritional challenges faced by three different populations, namely preterm infants, infants born to obese mothers who may or may not have gestational diabetes, and infants born to undernourished mothers. The recognition that multidisciplinary training is critical to advancing the field led us to formulate specific training recommendations in Section V. Our recommendations for research emphasis are summarized in Section VI. In summary, we present a roadmap for multidisciplinary research into all aspects of human lactation, milk, and its role in infant nutrition for the next decade and beyond.

Last Modified: 8/30/2014
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