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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Chemistry of Natural Products for Nutraceutical Use, Pest Management and Crop Development

Location: Natural Products Utilization Research

Title: Harvesting number and timing effects on shoot yield and flavonoid content in American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora)

Authors
item Shiwakoti, Santosh -
item Shannon, Dennis -
item Wood, Wesley -
item Lawrence, Kathy -
item Kemppainen, Barbara -
item Joshee, Nirmal -
item Rimando, Agnes

Submitted to: Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 25, 2013
Publication Date: July 5, 2013
Citation: Shiwakoti, S., Shannon, D.A., Wood, W., Lawrence, K.S., Kemppainen, B., Joshee, N., Rimando, A.M. 2013. Harvesting number and timing effects on shoot yield and flavonoid content in American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) . Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants. 19:248-261.

Interpretive Summary: American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora) is one of the two species of the Genus Scutellaria commonly marketed as medicinal herbs. Information on optimal management practices for high yields of plant material and of the medicinally important compounds (flavoniods) in American skullcap is lacking. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted in central Alabama to determine the effect of timing and frequency of harvest on shoot yield and flavonoid content of American skullcap. In the first year (2008), harvesting twice gave 36 % higher yield than harvesting once. In the second year (2009), there was no difference in yield between early or late harvesting but all the parameters considered in the study were significantly higher in the first harvest than the second harvest. In the first year, the yield and concentration of the flavonoid baicalein was the highest. In the second year, the yield and concentration of the flavonoid baicalin was the highest. There were no differences in flavonoid yield between early and late harvest. However, flavonoid yield was 58% higher in the first than in second harvest in second year. Biomass and flavonoid yield data suggest that American skullcap may be harvested twice in the first season and at least twice in the second season.

Technical Abstract: Information on optimal management practices for high dry matter and flavonoid yield in American skullcap is lacking. A field experiment was conducted in central Alabama to determine the effect of timing and frequency of harvest on shoot yield and flavonoid content of American skullcap. In the first year (2008), harvesting twice gave 36 % higher yield than harvesting once. In the second year (2009), there was no difference in yield between early or late harvesting but all the parameters considered in the study were significantly higher in the first harvest than the second harvest. In the first year, the yield and concentration of flavonoid baicalein was the highest followed by baicalin, apigenin and chrysin; the concentration and yield of scutellarein and wogonin were very low. In the second year, the yield and concentration of baicalin was the highest followed by baicalein and apigenin; the concentration and yield of scutellarein, wogonin and chrysin were low. There were no differences in flavonoid yield between early and late harvest. However, flavonoid yield was 58% higher in the first than in second harvest in second year. Biomass and flavonoid yield data suggest that American skullcap may be harvested twice in the first season and at least twice in the second season.

Last Modified: 8/22/2014
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