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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Agroecosystem Management Research

Title: Efficacy and longevity of the newly developed microencapsulated-catnip as an oviposition deterrent and a larvicide against stable flies

item Zhu, Junwei
item Wienhold, Brian
item Wehrle, Joe -
item Davis, Dan -
item Chen, Han -
item Taylor, David
item Friesen, Kristina
item Zurek, Ludek -

Submitted to: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 11, 2013
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L), are one of the most serious biting flies on cattle and cause over $2 billion losses annually on beef and milk production in U.S. cattle industry. Gravid female stable flies prefer to lay their eggs in rotting, decaying or fermenting organic materials, often associated with livestock animal waste. Stable flies have been reported to readily develop in these materials which are considered to be the primary source for emerging stable flies, especially during early summer in the Midwest region of the U.S. Insecticides and cultural sanitation are two primary methods for adult stable fly control in confined and pasture settings. The direct application of insecticides provides only marginal control and insecticide resistance in both laboratory colonies and field populations have recently been detected. Sanitation methods involve the removal of the residue which is expensive and labor intensive. The present work describes development of gelatin-based microcapsules containing catnip essential oil that used for the control of stable flies.

Technical Abstract: We report laboratory evaluations of encapsulated catnip oil as an alternative larvicide and oviposition deterrent. More than 98% inhibition in stable fly larval growth and female oviposition was observed in oviposition and larval developmental substrates treated with encapsulated catnip oil (0.5 g). Dose response tests further showed that as little as 0.06g and 0.1 g of encapsulated catnip oil provided > 90% oviposition and larval growth inhibition, respectively. Release of the active ingredients (nepetalactones) from the capsules was more rapid when the capsules were placed on a moist medium than on a dry medium. Under dry conditions very little active ingredient was released. Encapsulated catnip oil exhibits antibacterial activity supporting the hypothesis that inhibition of larval development occurred by reducing bacteria growth thereby depleting stable fly larval food resources.

Last Modified: 4/19/2014
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