FUNCTIONALIZATION OF VEGETABLE OILS FOR USE IN THE POLYMER, OLEOCHEMICAL, AND LUBRICANT INDUSTRIES
Location: Bio-oils Research Unit
Title: Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation
Submitted to: Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 27, 2012
Publication Date: September 19, 2012
Citation: Sharma, B.K., Doll, K.M., Heise, G.L., Myslinska, M., Erhan, S.Z. 2012. Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research. 51:11941-11945.
Interpretive Summary: The development of effective biobased gear oil is an exciting proposition as part of a growing industry, for example in wind turbines. Because soybean oil alone is not an effective lubricant, additives and co-lubricants are necessary. However, in order to meet the USDA’s bio-preferred program, the amount of non-biobased additives allowed in the formulation is limited. Using a new reaction technology, a friction-reducing boron compound can be added into soybean oil in order to produce an effective family of compatible additives with high bio-based content. A gear oil using these additives has been formulated and found to be as effective in bench tests, as an off-the-shelf mineral oil based product. This is an important step in the production of a fluid which will meet both the bio-preferred requirements and perform adequately.
The synthesis of lubricant additives based on boron and epoxidized soybean oil are presented. These additives are made from a simple patent pending method involving a ring opening reaction and addition of the borate. A pair of different additives were tested in soybean oil, polyalpha olefin basestock, group III basestock, and hexadecane. An aromatic additive was able to increase the oxidation onset of the basestocks by 14, 52, 48, and 49 deg C, respectively, when used at 2% wt. The other additive was shown to reduce the wear scar diameter in a friction test when used in soybean oil basestock, from 0.61 mm to 0.41 mm. These additives were also tested in a gear oil blend, and shown to reduce both wear and oxidation. They were also compatible with a popular additive, zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.