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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: FOOD FACTORS AND MAINTENANCE OF BODY WEIGHT AND HEALTH Title: Dose-dependent consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon (salmo salar) increases plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids differentially

Authors
item Raatz, Susan
item Rosenberger, Thad -
item Johnson, Luann -
item Wolters, William
item Burr, Gary
item Picklo, Matthew

Submitted to: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 17, 2012
Publication Date: February 4, 2013
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/58512
Citation: Raatz, S.K., Rosenberger, T.A., Johnson, L., Wolters, W.R., Burr, G.S., Picklo, M.J. 2013. Dose-dependent consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon (salmo salar) increases plasma phospholipid n-3 fatty acids differentially. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 113(2):282-287.

Interpretive Summary: Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Increasing high n-3 food intake in the population is better than through supplementation. We studied the effect of twice/wk consumption of different doses (90, 180, and 270g) of farmed Atlantic salmon on plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) levels and CVD risk biomarkers (glucose, insulin, HOMAIR, hsCRP, and IL-6) in 17 healthy subjects in a 3-period cross-over trial. Omega-3 PLFA proportions increased with the fish intake at all levels, however EPA, total n-3 and EPA + DHA were increased by all treatments in a dose response manner (p<0.0001). Total n-6 decreased significantly with all doses and the reduction n-6:n-3 ratio was dose dependent (p=0.0001). No changes were observed in CVD biomarkers with any level of salmon consumption. We found that the addition of farmed Atlantic salmon to the diet twice/wk for 4 wk at portions of 180g and 270g modifies PLFA proportions of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids bringing levels to those associated with decreased risk for CVD.

Technical Abstract: ABSTRACT Background: Enhanced n-3 intake benefit CVD risk reduction. Increasing consumption at a population level will be better addressed by dietary modification than through supplementation. However, limited data are available on the effect of increasing doses of fish intake on circulating levels of n-3 fatty acids. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different doses (90, 180, and 270g) of farmed Atlantic salmon on plasma phospholipid fatty acid levels and CVD risk biomarkers (glucose, insulin, HOMAIR, hsCRP, and IL-6) in healthy subjects. Design: This was a randomized 3-period cross-over trial (4 wk treatment, 4-8 wk washout) that compared the effects of twice/wk consumption of farmed Atlantic salmon at doses of 90, 180, and 270 g in 17 healthy man and women. Results: ARA decreased significantly (p = 0.0002) with salmon consumption, regardless of the amount consumed. No change was seen in LA with salmon treatments. EPA, total n-3 and ' EPA + DHA were increased by all treatments in a dose response manner (p<0.0001). Total n-6 decreased significantly with all doses and the reduction n-6:n-3 ratio was dose dependent (p=0.0001). No changes were observed in CVD biomarkers with any level of salmon consumption. Conclusions: We found that the addition of farmed Atlantic salmon to the diet twice/wk for 4 wk at portions of 180g and 270g modifies PLFA proportions of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids bringing levels to those associated with decreased risk for CVD.

Last Modified: 8/30/2014
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