GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF FRUIT CROPS THROUGH FUNCTIONAL GENOMICS AND BREEDING
Location: Appalachian Fruit Research Laboratory: Innovative Fruit Production, Improvement and Protection
Title: The present status of commercialized and developed biotech (GM) crops, results of evaluation of plum 'HoneySweet" for resistance to plum pox virus in the Czech Republic
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: May 18, 2012
Publication Date: N/A
Commercialization of biotech (GM) crops started in 1996. A significant increase of 9 million hectars was realized in 1996-2009. In the years 2010-2011, it was already 12 million hectars (8 percent of total crop area). 16.7 million farmers in 29 countries planted 160 million hectars of GM crops in 2011. Developing countries grow close to 50 percent of global GM crops at present. The U.S.A. is the lead producer of GM crops with 69 million hectars, 43 percent of global. GM soybean remains a dominant crop, followed by GM maize, cotton, and canola. Golden Rice is advancing towards the completion of its regulátory requirements. GM crops are contributing to the reduction of CO2 emissions. Not only field crops, but also horticultural transgenic crops are being developed and commercialized. The impressive progres is in transgenic vegetable projects which include tomato, potato, cabbage, brassica, cauliflower, bean, sweet pepper, chili, zuccini, squash, eggplant, cucumber, carrot, and sweet corn.
Genetic engineering has the potential to revolutionize fruit tree breeding. The development of transgenic fruit cultivars is in progress. Papaya resistant to Papaya mosaic virus is grown in U.S.A. and China. GM grapevine resistant to viral, bacterial, fungal disease with abiotic stress tolerance and health benefits is grown in South Africa. GM banana, apple, pear, and strawberry cultivars are under development.
A 20-year international research program in genetic engineering resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV) resulted in the development of ´HoneySweet´ plum highly resistant to PPV. PPV resistant ´HoneySweet´ plum has received regulatory approval in the U.S.A.
'HoneySweet' was evaluated for 10 years in the Czech Republic for resistance to PPV, PDV, and ACLSV under the high and permanent infection pressure of PPV-infected rootstocks. Under conditions of multiple virus infection ´HoneySweet´ remained highly resistant in leaves and fruits to PPV and produced fruits of high quality.