VEGETABLE OIL-BASED FUELS, ADDITIVES AND COPRODUCTS
Location: Bio-oils Research Unit
Title: Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) as a salt-tolerant feedstock for production of biodiesel and ethanol
Submitted to: Renewable Energy
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 8, 2012
Publication Date: September 17, 2012
Citation: Moser, B.R., Dien, B.S., Seliskar, D.M., Gallagher, J.L. 2013. Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) as a salt-tolerant feedstock for production of biodiesel and ethanol. Renewable Energy. 50:833-839.
Interpretive Summary: This research reveals that new feedstock can be used as a low-cost source for the production of both biodiesel and ethanol. One of the primary disadvantages of biodiesel relative to petroleum diesel is high cost, which is primarily caused by feedstock acquisition. Thus, identification and use of low-cost feedstocks has strong potential to dramatically improve the process economics and availability of biodiesel. An objective of this study was to produce biodiesel from seashore mallow and evaluate fuel properties taking into consideration important biodiesel fuel standards. The biodiesel fuel was also blended with petroleum diesel. Overall, the fuel properties of the biodiesel along with blends in petrodiesel were comparable to that of soybean-based biodiesel and its blends, thus indicating the acceptability of biodiesel prepared from seashore mallow. An additional objective was production of ethanol from residual seashore mallow biomass, which was successfully achieved. Thus, seashore mallow represents a low-cost, non-invasive, disease-resistant biofuels feedstock that is tolerant of saline soils and dry land that can be irrigated with brackish water or seawater, therefore liberating fresh water and high quality soil for traditional agriculture while simultaneously utilizing fallow land. These results will be important to biofuels producers, distributors, and end-users (customers). This research may ultimately improve market penetration, availability, and public perception of domestically produced agricultural fuels such as biodiesel and ethanol, thus affording greater national independence from imported petroleum-based fuels.
Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) is a non-invasive perennial nonclonal halophytic oilseed-producing dicot that was investigated as a feedstock for production of biodiesel from seeds and ethanol from residual stem biomass. Seashore mallow seeds contained 19.3 mass % oil, which after extraction with hexane and pretreatment with catalytic sulfuric acid, was converted into methyl in 94 mass % yield utilizing homogenous base catalysis. The principal components identified were methyl linoleate (48.9%), palmitate (24.4%), and oleate (18.3%). Fuel properties were characterized and compared to biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Also investigated were blends with petroleum diesel. Lastly, seashore mallow stems were rich in neutral carbohydrates (51.8 mass %). After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, employing a native Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain, the stems provided ethanol and xylose yields of 104 g/kg and 47.8 g/kg, respectively. Of the four pretreatment methodologies explored, dilute ammonium hydroxide provided the highest yield of sugars.