GENETIC AND CULTURAL PRACTICE IMPROVEMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE COTTON PRODUCTION
Location: Coastal Plain Soil, Water and Plant Conservation Research
Title: Exotic germplasm introgression effect on agronomic and fiber properties of upland cotton
Submitted to: National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: February 3, 2012
Publication Date: February 10, 2012
Citation: Chapala, M.M., Weaver, D.B., Campbell, B.T., van Santan, E., Sharpe, R.R. 2012. Exotic germplasm introgression effect on agronomic and fiber properties of Upland cotton. In: Proceedings of the National Cotton Council Beltwide Cotton Conference, January 3-6, 2012, Orlando, Florida. p. 803-807.
Genetic diversity is an important breeder’s tool for selection and improvement in crop cultivar development. Any successful breeding program depends on selecting superior quality parents. Lack of genetic diversity limits the potential of the breeder in selecting elite parents. Genetic uniformity predisposes cultivars to many pests and diseases and can make the adapted germplasm pool genetically vulnerable, as it is evident from the past. Hence, there is a need for expanding and improving the genetic base of upland cotton. Our study was designed to study the effect of exotic germplasm introgression on agronomic and fiber quality traits of adapted cotton cultivars. We developed eight populations derived from crossing two exotic parents (TX 245 and TX 1419) with four adapted cultivars (FM 966, PM 1218, Deltapearl and SG 747). In each of the population we developed five combinations with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent exotic germplasm. We tested the experimental material using RCBD with two years, two locations, five blocks and two replications. Across the populations, no significant difference was observed for days to first flowering, lodging percent and bolls per plant, whereas seeds per boll, seed cotton yield and lint yield did not show significant difference up to 25 percent but upon further introgression significant decline was observed. However, lint mass per seed, lint percent declined significantly with increase in exotic germplasm introgression. Fiber properties declined significantly with increase in exotic introgression except for fiber elongation and short fiber content. Fiber elongation improved significantly with increase in exotic percentage.