CHARACTERIZATION & EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CITRUS TRISTEZA VIRUS & OTHER INVASIVE & EMERGING GRAFT-TRANSMISSIBLE DISEASES OF CITRUS IN CALIFORNIA
Location: Crop Diseases, Pests and Genetics
Title: Overview of Current Quarantines and Management of Citrus Pests in California
Submitted to: American Society of Agronomy
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: December 16, 2011
Publication Date: January 23, 2012
Citation: Yokomi, R.K. 2012. Overview of Current Quarantines and Management of Citrus Pests in California. In: Proceedings of the American Society of Agronomy. 2012 Conference Proceedings, February 7-8, 2012, Visalia, California. p. 98-105. Available: http://calasa.ucdavis.edu/files/134945.pdf.
Interpretive Summary: The first line of defense to protect crops against exotic pests is exclusion. Quarantines of citrus pests in California are used to describe pest exclusion to limit or prevent spread. Elements of quarantines included as examples, but are not limited to, regulations, surveys, detection, eradication, certification, pest biology, risk assessment, enforcement, outreach, and coordination of the industry with federal, state and county agencies. Examples of trapping surveys for various quarantine pests in urban and agricultural landscapes are used to describe monitoring of internal quarantines. Examples for post harvest treatments and a systems approach demonstrate protection of export markets where quarantines are in place. When an exotic pest is found or becomes established, mitigation by eradication, biological control, and pest management is implemented.
The first line of defense against exotic pests is exclusion. For citrus, this is achieved by quarantines and a requirement that all citrus germplasm introduction to California pass through the California Citrus Clonal Protection Program, University of California, Riverside. Here, all new germplasm received is tested for disease agents, treated by thermotherapy and/or shoot tip grafting to eliminate pathogens and propagated on clean rootstocks. Introductions are subsequently retested to insure pathogen-free and true-to-type status before distribution to the citrus industry or public. Trapping for exotic Tephridid fruit flies, glassy-winged sharpshooter, light brown apple moth, Asian citrus psyllid, and surveys for Citrus tristeza virus and septoria spot are described as examples of interior surveys. The Navel and Valencia Export to Korea (NAVEK) program is discussed to show how a systems approach may be used to maintain a foreign market with quarantine restrictions. When an exotic pest is found, delimitation surveys are deployed to determine extent of infestation and risk assessment. This is followed by appropriate mitigation efforts such as eradication, biological control and pest management. Such efforts require coordination of different agencies, researchers, growers and public support.