Submitted to: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: November 14, 2011
Publication Date: September 18, 2011
Citation: Panickar, K.S., Anderson, R.A. 2011. Effect of polyphenols on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neuronal death, brain edema, and cell swelling in cerebral ischemia. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 12:8181-8207. Technical Abstract: Polyphenols are natural substances with variable phenolic structures and are elevated in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, roots, tea, and wine. while there are over 8000 polyphenolic structures identified in plants, edible plants contain only several hundred polyphenolic structures. In addition to their well-known antioxidant effects, select polyphenols also have insulin-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, anti-viral, anti-ulcer, and anti-apoptotic properties. One important consequence of ischemia is neuronal death and oxidative stress plays a key role in neuronal viability. In addition, neuronal death may be initiated by the activation of mitochondria-associated cell death pathways. Another consequence of ischemia, that is possibly mediated by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, is glial swelling, a component of cytotoxic brain edema. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the contribution of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction to neuronal death, cell swelling, and brain edema in ischemia. A review of currently known mechanisms underlying neuronal death and edema/cell swelling and the potential of dietary polyphenols to reduce such neural damage will be critically reviewed.