Title: Phytochemical Composition, Anti-inflammatory, and Antiproliferative Activity of Whole Wheat Flour Authors
|Whent, M -|
|Huang, H -|
|Lutterodt, H -|
|Zhouhong, X -|
|Lu, Y -|
|Fuerst, E -|
|Yu, L -|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 8, 2011
Publication Date: March 9, 2012
Citation: Whent, M., Huang, H., Lutterodt, H., Zhouhong, X., Lu, Y., Fuerst, E.P., Morris, C.F., Yu, L., Luthria, D.L. 2012. Phytochemical Composition, Anti-inflammatory, and Antiproliferative Activity of Whole Wheat Flour. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60:2129-2135. Interpretive Summary: There is increasing interest in reducing disease risk or managing chronic disease through use of health-enhancing dietary ingredients. Wheat-based products have been widely consumed by humans for thousands of years, and in the past decades whole wheat has been studied for its health beneficial properties. The wheat bran and germ in particular have been found to contain high levels of phytochemicals that may have bioactive effects. Identifying and characterizing these specific factors in wheat may promote the utilization of wheat and improve the sustainability of the industry of wheat-related production. The development of nutraceuticals or functional foods from wheat may help to promote continued consumption of wheat products and enhance the overall public health. Whole wheat flours of five varieties were studied as sources of phenolics, lutein, and a-tocopherol, and for corresponding anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activity. Ferulic acid was the major phenolic acid found in wheat flour; the majority was in the insoluble-bound form. WestBred 936 and Blanca Grande cultivars contained the highest levels of total ferulic and p-coumaric acid. WestBred 936 also contained the highest a-tocopherol level and showed the best anti-inflammatory effect against Interlukin 1-beta, a mediator of the inflammatory response, and had more potential in anti-proliferation at moderate concentration than other cultivars. All of the studied cultivars contain potential health-enhancing properties. WestBred 936 may have the most potential for further study as a value-added ingredient in functional foods.
Technical Abstract: Five wheat cultivars (Macon, Louise, WestBred 936, Alpowa, and Blanca Grande) were evaluated for phenolics composition, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition, anti-inflammatory activity, and antiproliferative activity against HT-29 cells. Total ferulic acid ranged from 451.7-731.3 µg/g , with the largest concentration found in the insoluble-bound form. Lutein was the only carotenoid detected and was found between 1.5 and 4.0 µg/g. Alpha-tocopherol levels ranged from 12.2-61.0 µg/g. Four of the cultivars demonstrated significant inhibition of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) mRNA expression, but did not significantly inhibit tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a). Proliferation of HT-29 adenocarcinoma cells was inhibited by all cultivars at the dose of 100 mg botanical equiv./ mL. WestBred 936 extract also exhibited moderate inhibitory effect at both 20 and 50 mg botanical equiv./mL. This research shows that the studied wheat flours are sources of phenolic acids and lipophilic antioxidants. It also demonstrates the anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative potential of the wheat cultivars and indicates that they may be further studied for use as functional food ingredients.