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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON PLANT DEFENSE RESPONSES INDUCED BY INSECT HERBIVORES AND PLANT PATHOGENS

Location: Chemistry Research Unit

Title: Effects of planting and maturity dates on shattering patterns under early soybean production system

Authors
item Zhang, Lingxiao
item Bellaloui, Nacer

Submitted to: American Journal of Plant Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 28, 2011
Publication Date: March 15, 2012
Citation: Zhang, L., Bellaloui, N. 2012. Effects of planting and maturity dates on shattering patterns under early soybean production system. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 3:119-124.

Interpretive Summary: Seed shattering is a common problem in early soybean production system (ESPS) in the Midsouth, USA, which sometime results in over 90% yield lost. Plenty of research work has been done on genetics of soybean shattering resistance for individual varieties; however, information on the physiology of soybean shattering pattern under particular environmental conditions is very limited, which is often critical to soybean growers. Field experiments were conducted by scientists of ARS-USDA and Mississippi State University at Stoneville MS to investigate the environmental effects on soybean shattering patterns from 2007 to 2009. Results indicated that pods of most soybean varieties did not shatter within the first three weeks after maturity (WAM) and there was no significant shattering effect on final yields. However, differences in seed shattering became apparent in the fourth WAM. Late-planted soybeans, which matured in early September, had a low shattering rate and could hold seeds up to 6 WAM before reaching a critical shattering point. Results indicated that soybeans maturing after September have much less problematic shattering. Different weather patterns, especially temperature and rainfall in each year could be essential factors affecting soybean seed shattering patterns.

Technical Abstract: Seed shattering is a common problem in early soybean production system (ESPS) in the Midsouth, which mainly uses maturity group (MG) IV soybeans. While each individual soybean variety may have different shattering resistance, certain unique patterns of seed shattering exist under particular conditions. A field experiment was conducted at Stoneville MS from 2007 to 2009 to investigate the shattering patterns, of which 80-132 MG IV soybean varieties were examined in each year. In 2007, experiments were conducted on both irrigated and non-irrigated fields in both April- and May-plantings. In 2008 and 2009, experiments were only conducted on irrigated fields for April-planting. Results from 2007 and 2008 indicated that, when April-planted MG IV soybeans matured in mid- to late August, pods of most soybean varieties did not shatter within the first three weeks after maturity (WAM) and there was no significant shattering effect on final yields. However, differences in seed shattering among the varieties became apparent in the fourth WAM. Late-planted MG IV soybeans, which matured in early September, had a low shattering rate and could hold seeds up to 6 WAM before reaching a critical shattering point. Most soybean varieties planted in April 2009 did not show significant seed shattering by the end of the forth WAM. The critical point of shattering was not reached until 6-7 WAM. Relatively lower temperatures and abundant rainfall during the late growing season in 2009 may be the main reasons causing slow shattering in April-planted MG IV soybeans. Results from the May-planting of 2007 and the April-planting of 2009 indicated that soybeans maturing after September have much less problematic shattering. Different weather patterns, especially temperature and rainfall in each year could be essential factors affecting seed shattering patterns.

Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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