|Xie, Chenghui -|
|Kang, Jie -|
|Li, Zhimin -|
|Schauss, Alexander -|
|Nagarajan, Shanmugam -|
|Wu, Tong -|
|Wu, Xianli -|
Submitted to: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 29, 2011
Publication Date: September 1, 2012
Citation: Xie, C., Kang, J., Li, Z., Schauss, A.G., Badger, T.M., Nagarajan, S., Wu, T., Wu, X. 2012. The acai flavonoid velutin is a potent anti-inflammatory agent: Blockade of LPS-mediated TNF-alpha and IL-6 production through inhibiting NF-kappa B activation and MAPK pathway. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 23(9):1184-1191. Interpretive Summary: Inflammation is now recognized as a central component of many diseases, especially chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Researchers at the Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center in Little Rock, Arkansas, have been studying the potential effects of dietary factors that could reduce inflammation and thus potentially help prevent or reduce cardiovascular disease. In this study, velutin, a unique component (belonging to a chemical class known as flavones) was isolated from the pulp of acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and examined for its effects in reducing inflammatory. Velutin was found to reduce the production of substances called cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in immune system cells to reduce inflammation. Researchers went on to determine the molecular mechanisms by which velutin accomplishes this reduction. This is the first study to identify the potential use of acai to help prevent inflammation.
Technical Abstract: Recent studies have shown that some flavonoids are modulators for pro-inflammatory cytokine production. In this study, velutin, an unique flavone isolated from the pulp of acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), was examined for its effects in reducing lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in RAW 264.7 peripheral macrophages and mice peritoneal macrophages. Three other structurally similar and well-studied flavones, luteolin, apigenin, and chrysoeriol, were included as controls and for comparative purposes. Velutin exhibited the greatest potency among all flavones in reducing TNF-alpha and IL-6 production. Velutin also showed the strongest inhibitory effect in NF-kappa B activation (as assessed by SEAP reporter assay) and exhibited the greatest effects in blocking the degradation of I kappa B, as well as inhibiting MAPK p38 and JNK phosphorylation; all of these are important signaling pathways involved in production of TNF-alpha and IL-6. The present study led to the discovery of a strong anti-inflammatory flavone velutin. This compound effectively inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression in low micromole levels by inhibiting NF-kappa B activation and p38 and JNK phosphorylation.