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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ENERGY REGULATION DURING THE ADULT LIFESPAN

Location: Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging

Title: Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Authors
item Kelley, George -
item Kelley, Kristi -
item Roberts, Susan -
item Haskell, William -

Submitted to: BioMed Central (BMC) Medicine
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 15, 2011
Publication Date: June 15, 2011
Citation: Kelley, G.A., Kelley, K.S., Roberts, S.B., Haskell, W. 2011. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BioMed Central (BMC) Medicine. 15; 9(1):74.

Interpretive Summary: Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determne the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults. Studies were located by searching nine electronic databases, cross-referencing, and expert review. Two independent reviewers selected studies that met esatablished criteria. The results indicated that aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet is highly efficacious for improving most lipid and lipoprotein.

Technical Abstract: Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults. Studies were located by searching nine electronic databases, crossreferencing, and expert review. Two independent reviewers selected studies that met the following criteria: (1) randomized controlled trials, (2) aerobic exercise combined with diet recommendations (saturated/trans fat intake less than 10% of total calories and cholesterol less than 300 mg/day and/or fiber intake >25 g/day in women and >35 grams per day in men), (3) intervention >4 weeks, (4) humans >18 years of age, (5) published studies, including dissertations and Master’s theses, (6) studies published in any language, (7) studies published between January 1, 1955 and May 1, 2009, (8) assessment of one or more of the following lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ratio of TC to HDL-C, non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG). Two reviewers independently extracted all data. Random-effects models that account for heterogeneity and 95% confidence intervals were used to pool findings. Of the 1,401 citations reviewed, six studies representing 16 groups (8 intervention, 8 control) and up to 559 men and women (282 intervention, 277 control) met the criteria for analysis. Statistically significant intervention minus control reductions were found for TC (-15.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -20.3 to -10.7), TC:HDL-C (-0.4 mg/dl, 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.2), LDL-C (-9.2 mg/dl, 95% CI, -12.7 to -5.8) and TG (-10.6 3 mg/dl, 95% CI, -17.2 to -4.0) but not HDL-C (-0.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -4.0 to 3.1). Changes were equivalent to reductions of 7.5%, 6.6%, 7.2% and 18.2% respectively, for TC, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C and TG. Because of missing variance statistics, non-HDL-C was excluded. Aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet is highly efficacious for improving TC, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C and TG, but not HDL-C concentrations, in adults. However, additional studies are needed, including effectiveness studies using intention to- treat analysis.

Last Modified: 7/25/2014
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