Title: Survival of adult Asian citrus pysllid on harvested citrus fruit and leaves Authors
Submitted to: Florida Entomologist
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 23, 2011
Publication Date: December 1, 2011
Citation: Hall, D.G., Mccollum, T.G. 2011. Survival of adult Asian citrus pysllid on harvested citrus fruit and leaves. Florida Entomologist. 94:1094-1096. Interpretive Summary: The Asian citrus psyllid is an important citrus pest because it transmits bacteria responsible for citrus greening disease. Both the psyllid and disease have been introduced into Florida. The psyllid has spread to other citrus production areas in the U.S. including Texas. Pertinent to this report is that the psyllid is invading California and Arizona, but most of the citrus in these states is currently free of the psyllid due to concerted eradication efforts. Citrus groves in these two states where the psyllid has been found are quarantined to assist in preventing the spread of the psyllid with harvested fruit trucked to areas where the psyllid has not been found. In Florida, adult psyllids have been reported with fruit transported after harvest. However, no information was available regarding psyllid survival on harvested fruit, which could be valuable in determining if or when fruit from an infested grove might safely be moved after harvest. Prompted by these regulatory concerns, survival of adults was investigated on harvested fruit and leaves. We found that adult psyllids can survive for a number of days without food; that they survive longer on harvested fruit; and that they survive even longer if leaves are present either alone or attached to stems. Survival of adult psyllids was longest a stem with leaves was attached to a fruit.
Technical Abstract: Prompted by regulatory concerns of Asian citrus psyllid accidentally being transported from areas infested by the psyllid to areas not infested, survival of adults was investigated on harvested fruit and leaves. Adults lived a maximum of 4 or 5 days in the absence of plant material but for 10 or 11 days on fruit. Survival increased when adults were confined to individual fruit with an attached stem of leaves, although there were survival differences among four citrus cultivars studied – adults lived a maximum of about 18, 21, 25 or 29 days on fruit from Temple orange, grapefruit, Murcott, or sweet orange trees when a stem with leaves remained attached to a fruit. Survival of adults on detached stems without leaves was similar to survival in the absence of food. Adults survived longer on detached stems with leaves or on detached leaves – adults lived a maximum of about 7 or 8 days when confined on leaves from Murcott or Temple trees compared to a maximum of more than 10 days on leaves from grapefruit or sweet orange trees.