BIORATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS OF TEMPERATE TREE FRUITS
Location: Fruit and Vegetable Insect Research
Title: Behavioral responses, rate of mortality, and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly exposed to Malathion, Zeta-cypermethrin, and Spinetoram
Submitted to: Journal of Pest Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 30, 2011
Publication Date: June 20, 2012
Citation: Yee, W.L., Alston, D.G. 2012. Behavioral responses, rate of mortality, and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly exposed to Malathion, Zeta-cypermethrin, and Spinetoram. Journal of Pest Science. 85:141-151.
Interpretive Summary: The western cherry fruit fly damages sweet cherry fruit in the western U.S. and must be strictly controlled to avoid export quarantines. Personnel at the USDA-ARS Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory in Wapato, WA examined the effects of three insecticides intended for another major pest, spotted wing drosophila, on cherry fruit flies. It was found that zeta-cypermethrin killed cherry fruit flies more quickly than malathion and spinetoram and that it also prevented all egg-laying by the flies. Results suggest zeta-cypermethrin could be used in an integrated control program for both cherry fruit fly and spotted wing drosophila.
Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of sweet and tart cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.) and P. cerasus L., respectively, in western North America. This fly is commonly controlled with spinosad bait sprays, but these sprays are ineffective against spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, a new pest of cherries in this region that may potentially be controlled using malathion, zeta-cypermethrin, and spinetoram. However, how well these materials protect fruit against reproductively mature R. indifferens is not known. In laboratory observations, R. indifferens spent the least amount of time on cherries treated with zeta-cypermethrin, possibly because of its toxicity and irritant effects. In laboratory experiments, zeta-cypermethrin killed flies more quickly than malathion and spinetoram, causing up to 100% mortality 2 h after exposure. Zeta-cypermethrin prevented all oviposition when flies walked on dried residues for 20–25 min or were directly sprayed before exposure to cherries with dried residues, simulating exposure of mature female flies in a treated orchard. Malathion and spinetoram reduced oviposition compared with controls, but did not prevent it, when flies contacted residues or were directly sprayed at a high volume. Results suggest zeta-cypermethrin is the most effective of the three materials at protecting cherries against mature R. indifferens and could be used in an integrated control program for it and D. suzukii.