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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: USDA NATIONAL NUTRIENT DATABANK FOR FOOD COMPOSITION

Location: Nutrient Data

Title: Cholesterol content and methods for cholesterol determination in meat and poultry

Authors
item Dinh, Thu -
item Thompson, Leslie -
item Galyean, Michael -
item Brooks, L -
item PATTERSON, KRISTINE
item Boylan, L -

Submitted to: Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 21, 2011
Publication Date: September 1, 2011
Citation: Dinh, T.T., Thompson, L.D., Galyean, M.L., Brooks, L.C., Patterson, K.K., Boylan, L.M. 2011. Cholesterol content and methods for cholesterol determination in meat and poultry. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 10(269-289).

Interpretive Summary: This review focuses on the cholesterol content of beef, pork, poultry, and processed meat products. There are various factors which influence cholesterol content in processed meats: animal species, muscle fiber type, and muscle fat content. Red meats tend to have greater total fat and cholesterol contents, although differences in the same types of cuts have been reported. Cholesterol content is unlikely to be affected unless there are pronounced differences in muscle structure and composition. Cholesterol content of meat and poultry has been determined mostly by analytical methods such as colorimetry and chromatography, although the latter has become predominant because of technological advances and method performance. Multiple issues in cholesterol analysis, including sample preparation, detection, and quantification, are evaluated. This review will be helpful to scientists interested in determining appropriate methods to analyze for cholesterol content in various meat products.

Technical Abstract: Available data for cholesterol content of beef, pork, poultry, and processed meat products were reported. Although the cholesterol concentration in meat and poultry can be influenced by various factors, effects of animal species, muscle fiber type, and muscle fat content are focused on in this review. Oxidative red muscles tend to have greater total lipid and cholesterol contents, although differences in the same types of muscles or cuts have been reported. Moreover, contradictory results among various studies suggest that unless there are pronounced changes in muscle structure and composition, cholesterol content is unlikely to be affected. Second, multiple issues in cholesterol analysis, including sample preparation, detection, and quantification were evaluated. Cholesterol content of meat and poultry has been determined mostly by colorimetry and chromatography, although the latter has become predominant because of technological advances and method performance. Direct saponification has been the preferred method for hydrolyzing samples because of cost- and time-effectiveness. The extraction solvent varies, but toluene seems to provide sufficient recovery in a single extraction, although the possible formation of an emulsion associated with using toluene requires experience in post saponification manipulation. The most commonly used internal standard is 5a-cholestane, although its behavior is not identical to that of cholesterol. Cholesterol can be analyzed routinely by GC-FID without derivatization; however, other methods, especially HPLC coupled with different detectors, can also be used. For research purposes, HPLC-UV/Vis/PDA with non-destructiveness is preferred, especially when cholesterol must be separated from other coexisting compounds such as tocopherols. More advanced methods such as GC/HPLC-ID/MS are primarily used for quality control purposes.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014