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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: STONE FRUIT BREEDING AND DEVELOPMENT Title: Six-year performance of 14 Prunus rootstocks at 11 sites in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

Authors
item Reighard, G -
item Beckman, Thomas
item Belding, R -
item Black, B -
item Byers, P -
item Cline, J -
item Cowgill, W -
item Godin, R -
item Johnson, R -
item Kamas, J -

Submitted to: Journal of American Pomological Society
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 5, 2010
Publication Date: January 3, 2011
Citation: Reighard, G.L., Beckman, T.G., Belding, R., Black, B., Byers, P., Cline, J., Cowgill, W., Godin, R., Johnson, R.S., Kamas, J. 2011. Six-year performance of 14 Prunus rootstocks at 11 sites in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial. Journal of American Pomological Society. 65:26-41.

Interpretive Summary: Regional rootstock tests provide critically important performance data for growers and extension personnel in planning a commercial orchard. The NC-140 peach rootstock trials have been providing this type of information since 1984. In a recent installment ‘Redhaven’, ‘Redtop’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach trees on 14 different rootstocks were planted at 11 sites in North America in 2001. Rootstocks included peach seedling rootstocks: Lovell, Bailey and Guardian®; peach x almond hybrids BH-4 and SLAP; peach x plum hybrids K146-43 (Controller 5), K146-44, and P30-135 (Controller 9); interspecific plum hybrids Hiawatha, Jaspi and Julior; interspecific Prunus hybrids Cadaman® and VVA-1 (Krymsk® 1); and Prunus pumila L. selection Pumiselect®. After 6 growing seasons tree vigor varied both by location and rootstock. The most vigorous rootstocks were BH-4, SLAP, Guardian, Lovell and Cadaman. The least vigorous rootstocks were Jaspi, K146-43, K146-44 and VVA-1. Several rootstocks had significant problems, i.e., excessive rootstock suckering on Julior and Jaspi and poor anchorage on Pumiselect. Tree performance varied considerably by both scion variety and location making it difficult to pick out a single clearly superior rootstock. Therefore, rootstock selection for a given area should be guided by results from test locations with similar climate, soil and specific disease resistance or site adaptations that several of these rootstocks were bred to provide. Cumulative fruit yields were highest on the peach seedling, peach x almond, and Cadaman® rootstocks. Lowest cumulative yields were from the small trees on Jaspi, VVA-1 and K146-44 rootstocks. Fruit weight did not differ much among rootstocks though cultivars on Pumiselect® and K146-43 often had smaller fruit. Cumulative yield efficiency was not consistently related to tree size. Rootstocks influenced dates of bloom and harvest, but not in a consistent manner across locations/cultivars.

Technical Abstract: Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. This test planting was an NC-140 Cooperative Regional Rootstock Project (www.nc140.org). There were 14 rootstocks in total, which included three peach seedling rootstocks: Lovell, Bailey and Guardian® ‘BY520-9’ [selection SC-17]. Clonal rootstocks included the peach x almond hybrids BH-4 and SLAP (Cornerstone); peach x plum hybrids K146-43 (Controller 5), K146-44, and P30-135 (Controller 9); interspecific plum hybrids Hiawatha, Jaspi and Julior; interspecific Prunus hybrids Cadaman® and VVA-1 (Krymsk® 1); and Prunus pumila L. selection Pumiselect®. Final tree size was largest in California, Georgia, Maryland and South Carolina. BH-4, SLAP, SC-17, Lovell and Cadaman® were the most vigorous rootstocks. Jaspi, K146-43, K146-44 and VVA-1 were the least vigorous, having trunk cross-sectional areas 20-50% of Lovell-rooted trees. No rootstock had a significantly higher survival rate than Lovell at all locations, but Bailey, K146-44 and P30-135 had good survival at all test sites. Julior and Jaspi consistently produced root suckers. Pumiselect® had anchorage problems at several locations. Cumulative fruit yields were highest on the peach seedling, peach x almond, and Cadaman® rootstocks. Lowest cumulative yields were from the small trees on Jaspi, VVA-1 and K146-44 rootstocks. Fruit weight did not differ much among rootstocks though cultivars on Pumiselect® and K146-43 often had smaller fruit. Cumulative yield efficiency was not consistently related to tree size. Rootstocks influenced dates of bloom and harvest, but not in a consistent manner across locations/cultivars.

Last Modified: 10/24/2014
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