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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IMPACT OF EARLY DIETARY FACTORS ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH Title: Acai juice attenuates atherosclerosis in apoe deficient mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

Authors
item Xie, Chenghui -
item Kang, Jie -
item Burris, Ramona -
item Ferguson, Matthew -
item Schauss, Alexander -
item Nagarajan, Shanmugam -
item Wu, Xianli -

Submitted to: Atherosclerosis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 20, 2011
Publication Date: June 15, 2011
Citation: Xie, C., Kang, J., Burris, R., Ferguson, M.E., Schauss, A.G., Nagarajan, S., Wu, X. 2011. Acai juice attenuates atherosclerosis in apoe deficient mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Atherosclerosis. 216(2):327-333.

Interpretive Summary: Acai fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of acai juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE -/-) mice. The mean atherosclerotic lesion areas in the aorta for apoE-/- mice fed 5% acai juice were 58% less compared to that for control diet fed mice. Reducing lipid peroxidation through boosting antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine production are proposed as major underlying mechanisms for the athero-protective effects of the acai juice tested in these experimental in vivo models.

Technical Abstract: Objective - Acai fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of açaí juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE -/-) mice. Methods and Results - ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 5% freeze-dried acai juice powder (AJ) for 20 weeks. The mean lesion areas in the aorta for apoE-/- mice fed AJ were 58% less (P<0.001) compared to that for CD fed mice. HDL-cholesterol was higher in AJ fed mice. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, including F2-isoprostanes and isomers of hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids were significantly lower in serum and in liver of AJ fed mice. Expression of the two antioxidant enzyme genes, Gpx3 and Gsr, were significantly up-regulated in the aorta from AJ fed mice. The activity of GPX, GSR and PON1 increased in serum and/or liver of mice fed AJ. In the second experiment, ApoE-/- mice were fed CD or AJ for 5 weeks. Serum levels, gene expression and protein levels of the two proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the resident macrophages with or without LPS stimulation were lower in mice fed AJ. SEAP reporter assay determined that AJ reduced NF-'B activation. Conclusion - Reducing lipid peroxidation through boosting antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine production are proposed as major underlying mechanisms for the athero-protective effects of the açaí juice tested in these experimental in vivo models.

Last Modified: 10/22/2014