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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGICALLY-BASED STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF HORTICULTURAL CROPS

Location: Horticultural Crops Research

Title: The susceptibility of small fruits and cherries to Spotted Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii

Authors
item Lee, Jana
item Bruck, Denny
item Curry, Hannah -
item Edwards, David
item Haviland, David -
item Van Steenwyk, Robert -
item Yorgey, Brian -

Submitted to: Pest Management Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 10, 2011
Publication Date: July 28, 2011
Citation: Lee, J.C., Bruck, D.J., Curry, H., Edwards, D.L., Haviland, D., Van Steenwyk, R., Yorgey, B. 2011. The susceptibility of small fruits and cherries to Spotted Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii. Pest Management Science. DOI: 10.1002/ps.2225.

Interpretive Summary: The Spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is a recently detected invasive vinegar fly infesting small and stone fruits in the United States mainland since 2008. Unlike other fruit or vinegar flies, SWD can cause serious economic losses because it will attack fruit that is still ripening on the plant before harvest. Basic biological information on SWD is lacking and mostly available from Japanese literature from the 1930s. Our study tested the ability of SWD to lay eggs and develop on common fruit hosts (blackberries, blueberries, cherries, grapes, raspberries, and strawberries). Twenty-eight no-choice and choice studies were conducted in the laboratory by exposing flies to fruit at various stages of ripeness or cultivars for 24 hours. Generally, SWD readily laid eggs and developed on fruit that was changing color or ripened. Few SWD developed on green fruit in general, overripe blueberries or winegrapes. In choice tests, SWD showed a 2-4-fold preference for some blueberry and blackberry cultivars within a fruit type. As sugar content of fruits increased, more eggs were laid or more SWD developed on blackberries, blueberries, cherries, raspberries, and strawberries. When exposed to multiple fruits simultaneously, strawberry, raspberry, and blackberry had more developing SWD, followed by cherry and blueberry. Green table grapes had the fewest developing SWD.

Technical Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, is native to Asia and has been detected in the North American mainland and Europe in 2008-10. SWD is a serious economic pest because it lays eggs within ripening fruit before harvest which can lead to crop loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate susceptibility of blackberries, blueberries, cherries, grapes, raspberries, and strawberries to SWD among various ripeness stages and cultivars. RESULTS: In 28 no-/choice laboratory cage tests, fruits were generally susceptible to SWD once coloration started. Few SWD developed on green fruit in general, overripe blueberries or winegrapes. In choice tests, SWD showed mild preference (2-4-fold difference) to no preference for cultivars within a fruit type. As brix levels increased, more eggs were laid or more SWD developed on blackberries, blueberries, cherries, raspberries, and strawberries. When exposed to multiple fruits simultaneously, strawberry, raspberry, and blackberry were most susceptible to SWD, followed by cherry and blueberry. Green table grapes were least susceptible. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that management of SWD may be needed when fruit starts to turn color, and that grapes and overripe blueberries may be less susceptible to SWD.

Last Modified: 8/21/2014
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