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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: METABOLIC VARIABLES AFFECTING THE EFFICACY, SAFETY, AND FATE OF AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS

Location: Animal Metabolism-Agricultural Chemicals Research

Title: Effects of field-manure applications on stratified 17B-estradiol concentrations

Authors
item Schuh, Mary -
item Casey, Frank -
item HAKK, HELDUR
item Desutter, Tom -
item Richards, Karl -
item Khan, Eakalak -
item Odour, Peter -

Submitted to: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 26, 2011
Publication Date: June 1, 2011
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/53780
Citation: Schuh, M.C., Casey, F.X.M., Hakk, H., DeSutter, T.M., Richards, K.G., Khan, E., Odour, P.G. 2011. Effects of field-manure applications on stratified 17B-estradiol concentrations. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 192:748-752.

Interpretive Summary: The natural hormone, 17'-estradiol (E2), is known to be an endocrine disrupting compound, and can contaminate environmental waters when released from animal manures. The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of manure-borne E2 at different depths in soil from fields that receive swine manure slurry as fertilizer. Soil cores were taken down to the water table from two locations that received manure. Soil cores were segmented, extracted, and analyzed for E2 using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. In both fields, E2 was detected in nearly half of the field samples, and the average of those was 4-times greater than the lowest observed adverse effect concentration. There was no significant effect on E2 detection frequency or concentration immediately after manure application, but E2 concentrations significantly increased many months after manure application, suggesting release due to rainfall. Remarkably, the E2 detections in field soils that received no manure followed the same trend. A laboratory study was then conducted in which E2 was applied to soil at concentrations similar to those found in manure. E2 dissipated entirely (as measured in water extracts) by degradation and sorption in the soil within 1 hour and were not significantly different from control soil. Thus, the field results could be explained by hypothesizing that manure application did not have an immediate effect on E2 levels in field waters due to the capacity of the natural soil to rapidly sorb E2. Even thou soil may act as a long-term reservoir for E2 in the environment, it can periodically release E2 through desorption and for transport into aquatic systems.

Technical Abstract: The estrogenic hormone, 17'-estradiol (E2), is a potent endocrine disrupting compound found in animal manures. The objective of this study was to assess the occurrence of manure-borne E2 stratified through soil in fields that receive swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure slurry as fertilizer. Soil cores were taken down to the water table from two locations that received manure. Pore water extracts from 0.15 m-increment core segments were then analyzed for E2 using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). In both fields, E2 was detected with an average frequency of detection of 49% for the 247 total samples (ave = 43 ng L-1 porewater equiv). Comparing pre- and post manure application, there was no significant effect on E2 detection frequency or concentration immediately after manure application. However, E2 concentrations significantly increased =6 months after manure application, suggesting release due to precipitation. The E2 detections followed a temporal trend similar to other locations that received no manure. A laboratory column study was also conducted, in which E2 was applied topically to soil at concentrations similar to those found in manure (5000 ppt). Concentrations of E2 were measured at seven time points and compared to a control soil that received no E2. The E2 dissipated (via degradation and sorption) in the soil aqueous phase by 98% within 1 hour and was not significantly different from the control for the duration of the experiment (64h). The field results indicated that manure application did not have an immediate effect on environmental E2 occurrence due to the capacity of the natural soil to rapidly sorb E2 based on the laboratory study. However, soil may act as a long-term reservoir for E2 in the environment, which is periodically released through desorption and transported to aquatic systems.

Last Modified: 8/19/2014
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