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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: SUSTAINABLE VINEYARD PRODUCTION SYSTEMS Title: Identification of Cylindrocarpon species associated with Black-Foot of grapevine in Northeastern United States and Southeastern Canada

Authors
item Petit, Elsa -
item Barriault, E -
item Baumgartner, Kendra
item Wilcox, W -
item Roshausen, P -

Submitted to: American Journal of Enology and Viticulture
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 1, 2010
Publication Date: March 8, 2011
Repository URL: http://www.ajevonline.org/cgi/content/full/62/2/177
Citation: Petit, E., Barriault, E., Baumgartner, K., Wilcox, W., Roshausen, P.E. 2011. Identification of Cylindrocarpon species associated with Black-Foot of grapevine in Northeastern United States and Southeastern Canada. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 62:177-183.

Interpretive Summary: Black-foot disease of grapevine is caused by a several different species of soilborne fungi. The most common and aggressive species, which are found across all major grape-growing regions of the world, are Cylindrocarpon liriodendri (Cl. liriodendri) and Cl. macrodidymum (sexual stage = Neonectria). Other species with a more limited distribution and uncertainty regarding their ability to cause the disease include Cl. destructans, Cl. obtusisporum, Cl. pauciseptatum, Campylocarpon fasciculare (Cp. fasciculare) and Cp. pseudofasciculare. The goal of our study was to identify the species associated with black-foot disease in vineyards of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, as such regions have not previously been surveyed. Recent expansion of wine grape acreage in these regions necessitates a clear understanding of the disease risks. We surveyed 11 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Genus-level identification was based preliminarily on colony morphology. Species-level identity was based on phylogenetic analysis of two nuclear loci, 5.8S rDNA and ß-tubulin, using voucher specimens and sequences with high sequence identity. We report for the first time from Canada recovery of Cl. liriodendri, Cl. macrodidymum, and Cl. destructans from symptomatic grapevines. We also report species not previously identified from black-foot symptomatic grapes anywhere in the world, including Cl. didymum and a Neonectria mammoidea-like species. Our findings suggest that local viticultural practices, primarily burying the vine underground during winter, may create injuries and thus exacerbate infection by wound pathogens like Cylindrocarpon. Overall this work improves the knowledge of black-foot disease in these nascent grape-growing regions, and will be helpful to growers in their planting decisions especially regarding viticultural practices, planting decision and disease management.

Technical Abstract: Black-foot disease of grapevine is caused by a complex of soilborne fungi. The most common and virulent species, which are found across all major grape-growing regions of the world, are Cylindrocarpon liriodendri (Cl. liriodendri) and Cl. macrodidymum (teleomorph = Neonectria). Other species with a more limited distribution and uncertainty regarding their pathogenicity include Cl. destructans, Cl. obtusisporum, Cl. pauciseptatum, Campylocarpon fasciculare (Cp. fasciculare) and Cp. pseudofasciculare. The goal of our study was to identify the species associated with black foot disease in vineyards of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, as such regions have not previously been surveyed. Recent expansion of wine grape acreage in these regions necessitates a clear understanding of the disease risks. We surveyed 11 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Genus-level identification was based preliminarily on colony morphology. Species-level identity was based on phylogenetic analysis of two nuclear loci, 5.8S rDNA and ß-tubulin, using voucher specimens and sequences with high sequence identity. We report for the first time from Canada recovery of Cl. liriodendri, Cl. macrodidymum, and Cl. destructans from symptomatic grapevines. We also report species not previously identified from black foot symptomatic grapes anywhere in the world, including Cl. didymum and a Neonectria mammoidea-like species. Our findings suggest that local viticultural practices, primarily burying the vine underground during winter, may create injuries and thus exacerbate infection by wound pathogens like Cylindrocarpon. Overall this work improves the knowledge of black foot disease in these nascent grape- growing regions, and will be helpful to growers in their planting decisions especially regarding viticultural practices, planting decision and disease management.

Last Modified: 12/17/2014
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