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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT AND ECOLOGY OF WEED POPULATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN

Location: Crop Protection and Management Research

Title: Tine cultivation effects on weed control, productivity, and economics of peanut under organic management

Authors
item Wann, D.Q. -
item Tubbs, R.S. -
item Johnson, Wiley
item Smith, A.R. -
item Smith, N.B. -
item Culbreath, A.K. -
item Davis, J -

Submitted to: Peanut Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 16, 2011
Publication Date: March 17, 2012
Citation: Wann, D.Q., Tubbs, R.S., Johnson, III, W.C., Smith, A.R., Smith, N.B., Culbreath, A.K., Davis, J.W. 2012. Tine cultivation effects on weed control, productivity, and economics of peanut under organic management. Peanut Science. 38:101-110.

Interpretive Summary: Weed control is widely considered to be the limiting factor to expanding organic crop production and is also the case for organic peanut production in the southeastern coastal plain. Cultivation with a tine weeder is a proven effective method at reducing in-row weed populations in several crops. Field trials were therefore conducted in 2008 and 2009 to assess the effects of various frequencies and durations of tine cultivation on weed control and overall peanut productivity on two peanut cultivars under organic management. Tine cultivation regimes consisted of two frequencies (once per week or twice per week) for three durations (3 wk, 4 wk, or 5 wk). Cultivation treatments also received cultivation with flat sweeps at least once and were hand-weeded during the growing season. All cultivation treatments significantly reduced annual grass and Florida pusley densities both years and smooth pigweed populations in 2009. Cultivated treatments also resulted in denser plant stands for peanut (9.2 plants m-1 to 13.2 plants m-1) than the non-cultivated control (3.9 plants m-1 to 7.9 plants m-1). Pod yields in cultivated treatments ranged from 3418 kg/ha to 4337 kg/ha and were all significantly greater than yields in the uncultivated groups (1140 kg/ha and 2215 kg/ha). However, the effects of tine cultivation on weed control, plant stand, and yield were largely insignificant among the various frequencies and durations of tine cultivation. These results indicate that tine cultivation at a minimum of once per week for at least 3 weeks can significantly reduce weed populations, improve plant stand, and increase yield in organically-managed peanut.

Technical Abstract: Identifying effective weed control regimes for organic peanut has become paramount for improving the feasibility of organic production. Tine cultivation is a proven effective method at reducing in-row weed populations in several crops. Field trials were therefore conducted in 2008 and 2009 to assess the effects of various frequencies and durations of tine cultivation on weed control and overall peanut productivity on two peanut cultivars under organic management. Tine cultivation regimes consisted of two frequencies (once per week or twice per week) for three durations (3 wk, 4 wk, or 5 wk). Cultivation treatments also received cultivation with flat sweeps at least once and were hand-weeded during the growing season. An uncultivated, non-weeded control was included for comparison. All cultivation treatments significantly reduced annual grass and Florida pusley weed populations both years and smooth pigweed populations in 2009. Cultivated treatments also resulted in denser plant stands for peanut (9.2 plants m-1 to 13.2 plants m-1) than the uncultivated control (3.9 plants m-1 to 7.9 plants m-1). Pod yields in cultivated treatments ranged from 3418 kg ha-1 to 4337 kg ha-1 and were all significantly greater than yields in the uncultivated groups (1140 kg ha-1 and 2215 kg ha-1). However, the effects of tine cultivation on weed control, plant stand, and yield were largely insignificant among the various frequencies and durations of tine cultivation. These results indicate that tine cultivation at a minimum of once per week for at least 3 weeks can significantly reduce weed populations, improve plant stand, and increase peanut yields in organically-managed peanuts.

Last Modified: 9/21/2014
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