BIOLOGICALLY BASED TECHNIQUES TO LIMIT THE DISPERSAL OF INVASIVE PESTS
Location: Insect Behavior and Biocontrol Research Unit
Title: Life table analysis and development of Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) under different constant temperatures
Submitted to: Annals of the Entomological Society of America
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 21, 2011
Publication Date: May 1, 2011
Citation: Legaspi, J.C., Mannion, C., Amalin, D., Legaspi, B. 2011. Life table analysis and development of Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) under different constant temperatures. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 104(3):451-458.
Interpretive Summary: The ficus whitefly is an economic pest of several species of ficus plants in India, Burma and China. It can cause serious injury to host plants by sucking sap, resulting in wilting, yellowing, stunting, leaf drop, or even death. In August 2007, the whitefly was found in Miami, Florida, and since then it has spread throughout most of southern and coastal Florida. Scientists at the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, Florida, conducted studies on the biology and reproduction of the whitefly to obtain information necessary in its control. These data on the ficus whitefly at different temperatures should be useful in designing control strategies should the whitefly continue to spread and become a serious economic pest of ficus plants.
The ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants in the United States. Very little is known about its biology and life history. Here, we studied development and reproduction at 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. No immatures survived the 35°C treatment and were excluded from analysis. Stage-specific duration times are presented for the other temperatures. Total duration of immature stages varied from 97.11 d at 15°C to 25.23 d at 30°C. Linear functions were used to describe development rates for eggs, instars and pupal stages. Total immature development was also modeled using a non-linear Briere-1 function: where r(T) is development rate at temperature (T), a = 0.0000146, T0 = 7.3120084; TL = 45.9512202 (constant, lower developmental threshold and lethal temperature, respectively). The thermal requirement for development from eggs to pupae was estimated to be 487.8 degree-days. Ficus whitefly reproduction was highest at 27°C where R0, GRR, T, r, alpha and DT were 23.114 female/female, 24.25female/female, 31.413 d, 0.0999 female/female per day, 1.105 female/ female per day and 6.93 d, respectively. The combined effect of temperature and female adult age on daily oviposition rate was modeled using the Enkegaard equation eggmean = (p+qT) d exp(– wTd); where T is temperature. Parameter estimates were: p = -30.21, q = 2.62, w = 0.034. Duration of female adulthood was 8 d at 15°C, significantly longer than 2.5 to 4.2 d at the higher temperatures. At 25 and 27°C, lifetime fecundity per female averaged 37.9 and 46.2, respectively.