INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS FROM NEW CROPS
Location: Bio-oils Research Unit
Title: Planting date and development of spring-seeded irrigated canola, brown mustard and camelina
Submitted to: Industrial Crops and Products
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 28, 2010
Publication Date: January 18, 2011
Citation: Pavlista, A.D., Isbell, T., Baltensperger, D.D., Hergert, G.W. 2011. Planting date and development of spring-seeded irrigated canola, brown mustard and camelina. Industrial Crops and Products. 33:451-456.
Interpretive Summary: The development of crops suitable for western Nebraska, where limited water resources exist, is crucial to sustainable agriculture in this region of the country. This study evaluated three plant species from the mustard family: camelina (Camelina sativa), canola (Brassica napus) and brown mustard (Brassica juncea) for their adaptability to this growing region. Canola and brown mustard had the highest seed yields (up to 2200 kg/ha) and oil contents (up to 41.9%). Both brown mustard and canola have high oleic acid content which makes the physical properties of the oil desirable for a number of industrial applications. This study provides crucial preliminary information to farmers for the introduction of these crops to this part of the country.
With increased emphasis on bio-diesel fuels, the influence of spring planting on the development of brown mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Arid), canola (B. napus cv. Hyola 401) and camelina (Camelina sativa cv. Boa) has become important. Field trials were conducted at Scottsbluff, NE, in 2005 and 2006 at planting dates of 24 Feb, 24 Mar, 7 Apr, 21 Apr and 5 May, and 3 Mar, 3 Apr, 10 Apr, 27 Apr, 11 May, and 2 Jun, respectively. Emergence time was shorter with later planting. Flowering date was later with later planting, but occurred within a range of degree days (P-days). Fruiting was affected by date and P-days, but seed maturity was
not affected by planting date and was unrelated to P-days. Fleabeetle damage was very high in brown mustard and canola. Bird feeding was a major problem with brown mustard planted before mid-April, and only with the first planting in canola. Camelina was not affected by either. Planting in April gave the best yields and canola could yield over 2200 kg ha-1. Oil content of the Brassica was highest when planted from late March and later. For camelina, planting date had no effect. In brown mustard and canola, 60-65% of oil was C18:1; in camelina, about 15%. Later planting increased C18:1 content for the three crops. The second fatty acid was C18:2 with 20% in brown mustard, 18% in canola and 20% in camelina. Later planting increased C18:2 in camelina only. The major fatty acid in camelina was C18:3 at 32-37%; earlier planting increased the content of C18:3. In camelina, C20:1 comprised about 12% of the oil and was highest with April planting. Canola and camelina seeded in April could be grown for oil successfully in western Nebraska.