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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC BASIS OF POSTHARVEST QUALITY, DISEASE CONTROL, AND PHYTONUTRIENT CONTENT OF SELECTED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Title: Genetics, breeding and selection of rootstocks for Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae

Authors
item King, Stephen -
item Davis, Angela
item Zhang, Xingping -
item Crosby, Kevin -

Submitted to: Scientia Horticulturae
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 15, 2010
Publication Date: September 20, 2010
Repository URL: http://sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=PublicationURL&_tockey=%23TOC%235159%239999%23999999999%2399999%23FLA%23&_cdi=5159&_pubType=J&view=c&_auth=y&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=f22f5b9eab24e903acfc64a02e1eff50
Citation: King, S., Davis, A.R., Zhang, X., Crosby, K. 2010. Genetics, breeding and selection of rootstocks for Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Scientia Horticultureae. 127:106-111.

Interpretive Summary: Limited availability of arable land and high market demand for off-season vegetables often leads to continuous cultivation and cultivation under unfavorable conditions such as too cold, wet, dry, or under low-light winter greenhouses. Successive cropping can increase salinity, the incidence of vegetable pests, and soil borne diseases. These conditions cause various disorders which can lead to crop loss. Chemical pest control is expensive, not always effective, and can harm the environment. Grafting onto resistant rootstock gives alternative control strategies for the problems listed above. If the area devoted to grafting increases in the future, there will likely be a shift in pathogen populations which overcome rootstock resistance, leading to development of new or more virulent diseases. This shift could also lead to reemergence of previously controlled diseases. In many parts of the world grafting is routinely used in continuous cropping systems. It was first commonly used in Asia during the late 1920s by grafting watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] onto pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex. Poir) rootstocks. Use of rootstocks can enhance whole plant biotic stress responses by improving plant vigor through vigorous attainment of soil nutrients, avoidance of soil pathogens and tolerance of low soil temperatures, salinity, and wet-soil conditions. The type of rootstock affects scion growth, yield, and fruit quality. Grafting is rare in the United States, due in part to cost and availability, but with continued loss of quality disease-free farmland, vegetable grafting is an attractive option. However, grafting cost, limited grafting facilities, and other issues associated with grafting delivery has slowed acceptance of this technique. This review discusses recent literature on vegetable grafting, and delves into current issues affecting the grafting industry. Issues affecting acceptance of grafting in the United States and Canada are highlighted.

Technical Abstract: Limited availability of arable land and high market demand for off-season vegetables often leads to continuous cultivation and cultivation under unfavorable conditions such as too cold, wet, dry, or under low-light winter greenhouses. Successive cropping can increase salinity, the incidence of vegetable pests, and soil borne diseases. These conditions cause various physiological and pathological disorders which can lead to severe crop loss. Chemical pest control is expensive, not always effective, and can harm the environment. Pesticide resistant diseases will make grafting even more important in the future. The major disease problems addressed by grafting include Fusarium wilt, Bacterial wilt, Verticillium wilt, Monosporascus root rot and nematodes. Additionally, grafting has been shown in some instances to increase tolerance to foliar fungal diseases, viruses and insects. If the area devoted to grafting increases in the future, there will likely be a shift in pathogen populations which overcome rootstock resistance, leading to development of new or more virulent diseases. This shift could also lead to reemergence of previously controlled diseases. In many parts of the world grafting is routinely used in continuous cropping systems. It was first commonly used in Asia during the late 1920s by grafting watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] onto pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex. Poir) rootstocks. Use of rootstocks can enhance whole plant biotic stress responses by improving plant vigor through vigorous attainment of soil nutrients, avoidance of soil pathogens, and tolerance of low soil temperatures, salinity, and wet-soil conditions. The type of rootstock affects scion growth, yield, and fruit quality. Grafting is rare in the United States, due in part to cost and availability, but with continued loss of quality disease-free farmland along with phase-out of methyl bromide, vegetable grafting is an attractive option. However, grafting cost, limited grafting facilities, methyl bromide exclusions, shipping costs, and legal issues associated with contracting for grafted plant delivery has caused slow acceptance of this option. This review discusses recent literature on vegetable grafting, and delves into current issues affecting the grafting industry. Issues affecting acceptance of grafting in the United States and Canada are highlighted.

Last Modified: 7/24/2014
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