Submitted to: Avian Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 27, 2010
Publication Date: December 1, 2010
Citation: Eggert, D.L., Swayne, D.E. 2010. Single vaccination provides limited protection to ducks and geese against H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus. Avian Diseases. 54:1224-1229. Interpretive Summary: Prior to 2001, H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus mainly infected chickens in Southeast Asia, but currently, domestic ducks and geese are also infected and have become a silent source for the virus. This study was carried out to determine if single vaccination of domestic ducks and geese would result in protection against H5N1 HPAI virus challenge. Single vaccination with killed H5 avian influenza vaccines provided partial protection in ducks and geese against the H5N1 HPAI virus depending on the vaccine seed strain. Our results demonstrated a single dose of H5 inactivated vaccine used for chickens may not provide sufficient protection for ducks and geese against H5N1 HPAI and that additional research is needed to develop waterfowl specific vaccines.
Technical Abstract: Since 2002, high pathogenicity avian influenza has spread from Asia to Europe and into Africa causing the largest epizootic of high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) of the last 50 years including infecting domestic and wild waterfowl. Our study was conducted to investigate whether single vaccination of 7 day old domestic ducks and geese with inactivated oil emulsion vaccines resulted in protection against HPAI virus challenge at 30 days of age. In ducks, some but not all vaccines decreased oropharyngeal and cloacal viral shedding for different periods post challenge when compared with the sham group. In geese, decreased morbidity signs and mortality were noted but limited to some vaccines. Best protection was seen with vaccine homologous to HPAI challenge virus Limited decreases in oropharyngeal and cloacal viral shedding and mixed results were attained when looking at seroconversion. Our results indicate single dose of oil emulsified vaccine optimized for chickens may not provide adequate protection for ducks and geese against HPAI virus and at a minimum, additional research is need to formula waterfowl specific vaccines.