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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: GENETIC BASES FOR THE BIOCHEMICAL DETERMINANTS OF WHEAT QUALITY Title: Incorporating Important Biochemical Attributes into Breeding Programs.

Author
item Souza, Edward

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: April 15, 2010
Publication Date: N/A

Technical Abstract: Biochemical attributes of quality can be manipulated by breeding when they can be measured inexpensively and genetic variation exists for trait that is expressed consistently across environments. This is true of all cereal crops but the examples for this presentation will be taken from wheat. Simple direct selection is effective for attributes such as wheat seed color because it meets all three of these criteria. Arabinoxylan content of flour as measured by solvent retention capacity and polyphenyl oxidase activity also fits this model as they are readily manipulated biochemical traits with relatively small genotype x environment interaction. When traits are difficult to measure directly or environmental conditions obscure the phenotype selection, using genetic markers can improve the selection efficiency. High-molecular-weight glutenins are the classic example of marker assisted selection. Selection for waxy (low amylose starch) wheat also was initially developed using markers. Although final stages of selection for the waxy trait typically uses inexpensive phenotyping methods. Traits that have limited variation may require the introduction of traits through inter-species hybridization. Gpc1 for grain content represents this type of introduction. Mutagenesis is another method to introduce new variation. This was used for the Lpa1 gene in wheat for low phytic acid concentration. TILLING is a relatively new method to direct the selection of the mutagenesis that may be appropriate for biochemical traits where the reduction of activity for a gene will enhance the biochemical profile of the grain.

Last Modified: 7/24/2014
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