Submitted to: ASABE Annual International Meeting
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: May 20, 2010
Publication Date: September 13, 2010
Citation: Dell, C.J., Myers, T.L., Beegle, D.B., Kleinman, P.J. 2010. Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions. Proceeding of the International Symposium on Air Quality and Manure Mangement for Agriculture. September 13-16, 2010. Dallas, Texas. 2010 CDROM. Interpretive Summary: An interpretive summary is not required.
Technical Abstract: Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely adopted in the northeastern US. Research in Pennsylvania has compared ammonia losses following incorporation of dairy and swine manures using shallow disk injection and a rolling-tine aerator with losses following surface broadcast. Additionally, impacts of multiple aerator configurations (toolbar angle and manure placement) on ammonia losses were investigated. Shallow disk injection reduced ammonia emissions by 70 to greater than 90%, compared to surface broadcast, throughout the study. Incorporation with the aerator had an inconsistent impact on ammonia emissions (0 to about 70% reduction relative to surface broadcast). Ammonia emissions were not significantly affected by placement of manure (broadcast ahead of aerator or banded over aeration holes), but emissions were reduced when the aerator toolbar was offset by 10 degrees. We recommend the shallow disk injector for manure application in the northeast. Manure incorporation with the aerator is highly dependent on soil and manure conditions and does not appear to provide a consistent reduction in ammonia emissions. While offsetting the aerator toolbar can result in lower ammonia emissions, the additional soil disturbance when the toolbar is offset may not be compatible with soil conservation plans.