|Ballou, Michael -|
|Starkey, Jessica -|
|Sparks, Chris -|
Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 13, 2010
Publication Date: January 5, 2011
Citation: Collier, C.T., Carroll, J.A., Ballou, M., Starkey, J., Sparks, C. 2011. Oral administration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii reduces mortality associated with immune and cortisol responses to Escherichia coli endotoxin in weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 89:52-58. Interpretive Summary: The present study determined the effects of dry yeast on the immune/cortisol response and subsequent death in infected newly weaned piglets (26.1 +/- 3.4 d of age). Barrows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups, with and without the addition of yeast for 16 d. On d 16, all piglets were infected with an E. coli toxin. Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals before and after infection. Serum cortisol and immune agents were evaluated at all time points. In yeast treated piglets, growth increased and toxin-induced piglet death was reduced. Immune cells were increased (P < 0.05) in yeast-treated animals prior to toxin dosing compared to piglets not receiving yeast. Suppression of stress-related cortisol concentrations was observed in yeast-treated piglets from before and immediately after toxin dosing compared to control animals. The production of immune agents was unique to each treatment. These results highlight the previously unidentified effects of yeast administration on immune and cortisol responses and the subsequent impact on growth and toxin-induced death in weaned piglets.
Technical Abstract: The effects of active dry yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii (Scb), on the immune/cortisol response and subsequent mortality to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration were evaluated in newly weaned piglets (26.1 +/- 3.4 d of age). Barrows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups, with (Scb; n = 15) and without (Control; n = 15), the in-feed inclusion of Scb (200g/ton) for 16 d. On d 16, all piglets were dosed via indwelling jugular catheters with LPS (25 ug/kg BW) at 0 h. Serial blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -1 h to 6 h and then at 24 h. Differential blood cell populations were enumerated hourly from 0 to 6 h and at 24 h. Serum cortisol, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1B'' IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and interferon-gamma (IFN-g) concentrations were determined via porcine-specific ELISAs at all time points. In Scb-treated piglets, cumulative ADG increased (P < 0.05) by 39.9% and LPS-induced piglet mortality was reduced 20% compared to control piglets. White blood cells, lymphocytes and neutrophils were increased (P < 0.05) in Scb-treated animals prior to LPS dosing compared to control piglets before being equally suppressed (P < 0.05) from baseline in both treatments after LPS dosing with a return to baseline by 24 h. Suppression of circulating cortisol concentrations (P < 0.05) was observed in Scb-treated piglets from -1 h to 1 h relative to LPS dosing compared to control animals before both peaked equally and subsequently returned to baseline. Peak production (P < 0.05) of IL-1B and'IL-6 was lower in Scb-treated piglets after LPS administration compared to Controls before both equally returned to baseline. Peak TNF-a production in Scb-treated animals was accelerated 0.5 h and was greater (P < 0.05) than peak production in control pigletss after which both equally returned to baseline. The peak production of IFN-g was greater and had increased (P < 0.05) amplitude persistent for 3 h in Scb-treated animals compared to control piglets before both equally returned to baseline. These results highlight the previously unidentified effects of Scb administration on immune and cortisol responses and the subsequent impact on growth and endotoxin-induced mortality in weaned piglets.