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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MANAGEMENT OF TEMPERATE FRUIT NUT AND SPECIALTY CROP GENETIC RESOURCES

Location: National Clonal Germplasm Repository (Corvallis, Oregon)

Title: Techniques for Short and Long-Term Preservation of Plant Tissues and Organs

Author
item Reed, Barbara

Submitted to: In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plants
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: February 15, 2010
Publication Date: June 11, 2010
Citation: Reed, B.M. 2010. Techniques for Short and Long-Term Preservation of Plant Tissues and Organs. In Vitro. 46:S284.

Interpretive Summary: Preservation of plant tissues can be accomplished using a range of technologies. Whole plants or plant parts from temperate regions can usually be stored under cool to cold conditions for several months to a year. For example, whole strawberry plants can be held at refrigerator temperatures for up to 6 months. In vitro cultures of temperate plants are routinely stored under refrigeration for 3 months to as long as 4 years. Sub tropical and tropical plants can be held at cool temperatures for long periods as well. For long-term storage, cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen is becoming widely used for plant materials of all types. Drying is one of the most common pretreatments for seeds and seed parts prior to cryopreservation. Dormant buds of temperate woody plants can be dried and cryopreserved. For actively growing cultures there are several effective cryopreservation techniques. Controlled rate cooling is commonly used for cultures of temperate plants. Other protocols allow cooling without ice formation. These protocols include thick solutions that turn to glass on contact with liquid nitrogen and others add high concentrations of sugars and drying to achieve glass formation. Both of these are effective for cryopreservation of many types of plant materials.

Technical Abstract: Preservation of plant tissues can be accomplished using a range of technologies. Whole plants or plant parts from temperate regions can usually be stored under cool to cold conditions for several months to a year. For example, whole strawberry plants can be held at 4°C for up to 6 months. In vitro cultures of temperate plants are routinely stored at 4-5°C for 3 months to as long as 4 years without subculture. Sub tropical and tropical plants can be held at sub normal temperatures (15-18°C) for long periods as well. For long-term storage, cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen is becoming widely used for plant materials of all types. Callus tissues, suspension cultures, shoot tips and seeds or seed parts of a wide range of plants are now stored in liquid nitrogen. Desiccation is one of the most common pretreatments for seeds and seed parts prior to cryopreservation. Dormant buds of temperate woody plants can be dehydrated and cryopreserved as well. For actively growing plant materials such as callus, suspension and shoot tip cultures there are several effective cryopreservation techniques. Controlled rate cooling is commonly used for callus and suspension cultures and for shoot cultures of temperate plants. Vitrification protocols include those with vitrification solutions and those that employ sucrose loading and dehydration to achieve vitrification. Both of these vitrification strategies are effective for many types of plant materials.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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