CHARACTERIZATION, PRODUCTION, AND UTILIZATION OF PHYTOCHEMICALS FROM AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS
Location: Functional Foods Research Unit
Title: Haemolytic and Antimicrobial Activites of Saponin-Rich Extracts from Guar Meal
Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 30, 2009
Publication Date: December 15, 2009
Citation: Hassan, S.M., Haq, A.U., Byrd, J.A., Berhow, M.A., Cartwright, A.L., Bailey, C.A. 2010. Haemolytic and Antimicrobial Activites of Saponin-Rich Extracts from Guar Meal. Food Chemistry. 119:600-605.
Interpretive Summary: Degummed guar bean meal, currently a low value by-product, was extracted, separated into fractions and evaluated for blood cell disruption (haemolytic) and antibacterial activities. Significant haemolytic and antibacterial activity was found in the 100% methanol fraction which was shown to contain a group of compounds called saponins. These activities could be exploited as animal food ingredients, especially for broiler chickens, to prevent bacterial contamination.
Saponin-rich GM extract was prepared by refluxing 25 g of GM with 250 ml of EtOH/H2O (1:1, v/v) for 3 h then filtering and distilling EtOH at 50oC. The refluxed extract was partitioned with equal volume of BuOH obtaining crude saponin-rich GM extract with 4.8 ± 0.6% DM of GM that was purified by RP-HPLC eluting 20%, 60% and 100% MeOH fractions with 2.04 ± 0.32%, 0.91 ± 0.16% and 1.55 ± 0.15% DM of crude saponin-rich GM extract, respectively.
Further purification of 100% MeOH fraction using NP-HPLC eluted four peak sub-fractions at 16, 39, 44 and 46 min. All saponin-rich GM fractions eluted were evaluated for both haemolytic and antimicrobial activities using 96-well plates in eight concentrations. Results indicated that only 100% MeOH fraction and its 16 min peak sub-fraction exhibited both haemolytic and antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli, but 20% and 60% MeOH fractions stimulated Lactobacillus spp. growth.