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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DEVELOPMENT OF QUARANTINE ALTERNATIVES FOR SUBTROPICAL FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PESTS Title: Comparison of in vitro heat and cold tolerances of the new invasive species Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) with three known tephritids

Authors
item Hallman, Guy
item Myers, Scott -
item Jessup, Andrew -
item Islam, Amirul -

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 18, 2010
Publication Date: February 1, 2011
Citation: Hallman, G.J., Myers, S.W., Jessup, A.J., Islam, A. 2011. Comparison of in vitro heat and cold tolerances of the new invasive species Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) with three known tephritids. Journal of Economic Entomology. 104:21-25.

Interpretive Summary: A new invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, has been spreading in central Africa and attacking a variety of fruits, such as mango and citrus. The only quarantine treatment that is commercially available is an irradiation generic treatment at 150 Gy. The development of other treatments, such as heat, cold storage or methyl bromide fumigation, usually requires testing tens of thousands of insects at a dose that provides control and may take several years to accomplish the research. A method for developing a treatment in shorter time is to compare tolerance of a new quarantine pest to tolerances of pests for which treatments are available. Cold and heat tolerance of B. invadens compared to tolerance of Mexican fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and Mediterranean fruit fly, fruit flies for which heat and cold treatments are available. Late larval B. invadens was no more cold tolerant than the other fruit flies when stored in diet at approximately 1 degree C (34 degrees F). In vials immersed in water at 44.7 degrees C (112.5 degrees F) it was not more heat tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. If these relative tolerances are proven in fruit, it may be reasonable to allow treatment of fruit quarantined because of B. invadens by using treatments already approved for these other flies.

Technical Abstract: Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White has been invading central Africa attacking a variety of fruits. Quarantines are placed on fruits that might be considered hosts. The only phytosanitary treatment that is commercially available is an ionizing irradiation generic treatment for Tephritidae at 150 Gy. The development of other treatments, such as heat, cold or fumigation, usually requires testing tens of thousands of insects at a dose that provides control and may take several years to do the research. A method for developing a treatment in shorter time is to compare tolerance of a new quarantine pest to tolerances of pests for which treatment schedules are available. Cold and heat tolerance of B. invadens was compared to tolerance of Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in vitro. Third instar B. invadens was no more cold tolerant than the other species when stored in diet at approximately 1 degree C. In vials immersed in water at 44.7 plus or minus 0.1 degrees C it was not more heat tolerant than C. capitata. If these relative tolerances are substantiated in fruit it may be reasonable to allow treatment of fruit quarantined because of B. invadens by using treatments already approved for other pests.

Last Modified: 12/25/2014
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