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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: LIVESTOCK LOSSES FROM ABORTIFACIENT AND TERATOGENIC PLANTS

Location: Poisonous Plant Research

Title: Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus

Authors
item Cook, Daniel
item Lee, Stephen
item Gardner, Dale
item Pfister, James
item Welch, Kevin
item Green, Benedict
item Davis, Thomas
item Panter, Kip

Submitted to: Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: July 10, 2010
Publication Date: May 1, 2011
Citation: Cook, D., Lee, S.T., Gardner, D.R., Pfister, J.A., Welch, K.D., Green, B.T., Davis, T.Z., Panter, K.E. 2011. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus and Lupinus leucophyllus. In: Riet-Correa, F., Pfister, J., Schild, A.L., Wierenga, T., editors. Poisoning by Plants, Mycotoxins, and Related Toxins. Cambridge, MA. CAB International. 97:566-71.

Interpretive Summary: Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the Channel Scablands of East-central Washington on a yearly basis. Three major lupine species are found on these rangelands Lupinus sulphureus (Sulphur Lupine), Lupinus leucophyllus (Velvet Lupine), and/or Lupinus sericeus (Silky Lupine). The alkaloid profiles of these three species throughout this geographical region were summarized in terms of their toxic and teratogenic potential. Each alkaloid profile appeared to be unique in its geographical distribution and its potential risk to livestock. The results demonstrate that taxonomic classification is not sufficient to determine risk, as chemical characterization of the alkaloids must also be performed.

Technical Abstract: Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the Channel Scablands of East-central Washington on a yearly basis. Three major lupine species are found on these rangelands Lupinus sulphureus (Sulphur Lupine), Lupinus leucophyllus (Velvet Lupine), and/or Lupinus sericeus (Silky Lupine). The alkaloid profiles of these three species throughout this geographical region were summarized in terms of their toxic and teratogenic potential. Each alkaloid profile appeared to be unique in its geographical distribution and its potential risk to livestock. In conclusion, taxonomic classification is not sufficient to determine risk, as chemical characterization of the alkaloids must also be performed.

Last Modified: 9/20/2014
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