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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: VITAMIN K AND VITAMIN K-DEPENDENT PROTEIN DURING AGING

Location: Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging

Title: Adiposity, cardiometabolic risk, and vitamin D status: the Framingham Heart Study

Authors
item Cheng, Susan -
item Massaro, Joseph -
item Fox, Caroline -
item Larson, Martin -
item Keyes, Michelle -
item Mccabe, Elizabeth -
item Robins, Sander -
item O'Donnell, Christopher -
item Hoffman, Udo -
item Jacques, Paul -
item Booth, Sarah -
item Vasan, Ramachandran -
item Wolf, Myles -
item Wang, Thomas -

Submitted to: Diabetes
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 22, 2009
Publication Date: January 1, 2010
Citation: Cheng, S., Massaro, J., Fox, C., Larson, M., Keyes, M., Mccabe, E., Robins, S., O'Donnell, C., Hoffman, U., Jacques, P., Booth, S.L., Vasan, R., Wolf, M., Wang, T. 2010. Adiposity, cardiometabolic risk, and vitamin D status: the Framingham Heart Study. Diabetes. 59:242-248.

Interpretive Summary: Because vitamin D deficiency is associated with a variety of chronic diseases, understanding the characteristics that promote vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy adults could have important clinical implications. Few studies relating vitamin D deficiency to obesity have included direct measures of the adiposity, which is defined as the amount of body fat. Furthermore, the degree to which vitamin D is associated with chronic diseases after adjusting for adiposity measures is unclear. We investigated the relations of vitamin D concentrations in blood [serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D)] with measures of cardiovascular disease risk in 3,890 non-diabetic individuals; 1,882 had volumes of subcutaneous (below the skin) adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral (the area in the abdomen that contains the intestines, the stomach, and the liver) adipose tissue (VAT) measured by multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Lower vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] were associated with winter season, higher waist circumference, and higher serum insulin. Furthermore, lower vitamin D concentrations were associated with higher SAT and VAT. Higher amounts of total body fat were correlated with lower concentrations of vitamin D across different categories of body mass index (BMI), including in lean individuals (BMI <25 kg/m2). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL ) was 3-fold higher in those with high SAT and high VAT than in those with low SAT and low VAT. In conclusion, vitamin D status is strongly associated with variation in body fat. The mechanisms by which body fat promotes vitamin D deficiency warrant further study.

Technical Abstract: Objective: Because vitamin D deficiency is associated with a variety of chronic diseases, understanding the characteristics that promote vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy adults could have important clinical implications. Few studies relating vitamin D deficiency to obesity have included direct measures of adiposity. Furthermore, the degree to which vitamin D is associated with metabolic traits after adjusting for adiposity measures is unclear. Research Design and Methods: We investigated the relations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations with indices of cardiometabolic risk in 3,890 non-diabetic individuals; 1,882 had subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volumes measured by multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Results: In multivariable-adjusted regression models, 25(OH)D was inversely associated with winter season, waist circumference, and serum insulin ( P<0.005 for all). In models further adjusted for CT measures, 25(OH)D was inversely related to SAT (-1.1 ng/mL per standard deviation [SD] increment in SAT, P=0.016) and VAT (-2.3 ng/mL per SD, P<0.0001). The association of 25(OH)D with insulin resistance measures became non-significant after adjustment for VAT. Higher adiposity volumes were correlated with lower 25(OH)D across different categories of body mass index (BMI), including in lean individuals (BMI <25 kg/m2). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL ) was 3-fold higher in those with high SAT and high VAT than in those with low SAT and low VAT (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Vitamin D status is strongly associated with variation in subcutaneous and especially visceral adiposity. The mechanisms by which adiposity promotes vitamin D deficiency warrant further study.

Last Modified: 8/1/2014
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