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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IMPACT OF EARLY DIETARY FACTORS ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH Title: Dietary black raspberry anthocyanins or processed black raspberry products do not alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic high fat diet

Authors
item Prior, Ronald
item Wilkes, Samuel -
item Rogers, Theodore -
item Khanal, Ramesh -
item Hager, Tiffany -
item Hager, Aaron -
item Wu, Xianli -
item Howard, Luke -

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 19, 2010
Publication Date: March 4, 2010
Citation: Prior, R.L., Wilkes, S., Rogers, T., Khanal, R., Hager, T., Hager, A., Wu, X., Howard, L. 2010. Dietary black raspberry anthocyanins or processed black raspberry products do not alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic high fat diet. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(7):3977-3983.

Interpretive Summary: Obesity is recognized as a major health issue in the U.S. and other developed countries. Diet is one component of a multitude of complex factors that can impact this problem. The recent finding that anthocyanins (ACNs) can alter the development of obesity, at least in animal models, has provided a basis for studying effects of berry anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are the compounds in berries that give them their dark blue/black/red colors. Many berries are rich sources of ACNs, but the ACN composition may vary widely. Feeding purified ACNs from blueberry and strawberry has been shown to be effective in slowing the development of obesity, while ACNs fed as the whole blueberry were not effective in slowing the development of obesity. The objectives of the current study were: 1) to compare the effects of feeding purified black raspberry (BRB) ACNs or the freeze dried whole BRB on development of obesity and 2) to determine if consumption of various forms of processed BRB were effective in preventing obesity compared to purified BRB ACNs or whole BRB powder in a diet-induced mouse model of obesity. Adipose tissue deposition as well as fasting serum glucose, leptin, insulin, and measures of insulin resistance were increased in mice fed a high-fat diet compared to mice consuming a low-fat diet. None of the responses measured were altered by BRB puree, BRB pomace, or whole BRB powder included in the diet relative to the high-fat control diet. The ACN cyanidin containing two or three sugars that are found in BRB appears to be ineffective in altering the development of obesity in contrast to cyanidin that contains only a single sugar which has been shown to be effective in slowing development of obesity.

Technical Abstract: Anthocyanins (ACNs) from various foods have been shown to minimize the development of obesity in some animal models. The objectives of the current study were: 1) to compare the effects of feeding purified black raspberry (BRB) ACNs or the freeze dried whole BRB on development of obesity and 2) to determine if consumption of various forms of processed BRB was effective in preventing obesity compared to purified BRB ACNs or whole BRB powder. Male C57BL/6J mice (25 days of age) were assigned at random to treatments (9/treatment; 3/cage). The treatments included: 1) Control low-fat (10% calories from fat)(C-LF); 2) C-LF plus BRB juice in place of drinking water; 3) C-LF diet plus purified BRB ACNs in drinking water (1.25 mg/mL); 4) C-LF + freeze dried whole BRB powder (18.5 g/kg diet); 5) Control high-fat diet (60% calories from fat)(HF60); 6) HF60 diet + BRB juice in place of drinking water; 7) HF60 diet + ACNs in drinking water (1.25 mg/mL); 8) HF60 diet + BRB puree in diet (44.7 g/kg diet); 9) HF60 diet plus BRB pomace (49.4 g/kg diet); and 10) HF60 + freeze dried whole BRB powder (21.7 g/kg diet). Body weight gains in mice fed HF60 diet plus purified BRB ACNs tended to be lower after 56, 63, and 70 days than mice fed HF60 alone. Body weights were increased at time of sacrifice, but heart, liver, and kidney weights as a percentage of body weight were decreased in mice fed HF60 diet compared to LF fed mice. Weights (g or g/body weight) of epididymal and retroperitoneal fat were increased in the HF60 fed mice compared to LF fed mice. Fasting serum glucose, leptin, and insulin as well as homeostasis assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were elevated in mice fed HF60 diet relative to LF fed controls. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were not altered by diet. Serum levels of resistin were increased in mice fed HF60 diet compared to mice fed the LF diet. None of the responses measured were altered by BRB puree, BRB pomace, or whole BRB powder included in the diet relative to the HF60 control diet. Cyanidin containing di- or tri-glycosides appear to be ineffective in altering the development of obesity in contrast to cyanidin-monoglycosides which have been shown to be effective.

Last Modified: 12/22/2014