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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Alternatives to MEBR for California Cropping Systems

Location: Water Management Research

Title: Alternatives to Methyl Bromide Soil Fumigation for Vineyard Replant

Authors
item Wang, Dong
item Gerik, James
item Gao, Suduan
item Hanson, Bradley
item Qin, Ruijun -
item Browne, Greg
item Vasquez, Stephen -

Submitted to: International Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: September 2, 2009
Publication Date: November 11, 2009
Citation: Wang, D., J.Gerik, S.Gao, B.Hanson, R.Qin, G.Browne, S.Vasquez. 2009. Alternatives to Methyl Bromide Soil Fumigation for Vineyard Replant. Page 35:1-3, In 2009 "International Conference on Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Emissions Reductions", San Diego, CA.

Interpretive Summary: The project is part of the USDA-ARS Pacific Area-Wide Pest Management Program for Methyl Bromide Alternatives. Currently, many grape growers use Telone C35 (active ingredients are 1,3-dichloropropene or 1,3-D and chloropicrin) to control soilborne pests, especially plant parasitic nematodes, during vineyard replant. The usage of 1,3-D also faces environmental regulations because of its potential contribution to VOC emissions. The objective of this project was to determine the needs and alternatives for soil fumigation with methyl bromide for effectively controlling plant pathogens and parasitic nematodes, low emission losses, and responses in vine growth. Field experiments were carried out at the USDA-ARS San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center (SJVASC) facility located near Parlier, CA in Oct. 2007 and Oct. 2008 and a commercial grape grower’s field near Fresno, CA in Nov. 2008. Grape seedlings (Vitis vinifera var. Cabernet Sauvignon) were planted on March 18, 2008 in the first trial at SJVASC. Vine pruning biomass was measured in January 2009 when the vines reach dormancy. The experiment was repeated in the second year and the same grape variety was replanted in spring 2009 on an adjacent field. Demonstration trial at the grower’s field was initiated in fall 2008. The field was about 3.5 ac in size and was previously cropped with Thompson seedless grapes for > 70 years. Preliminary results indicated that control in total Pythium spp. was achieved in all fumigated plots except the InLine bare soil treatment. Live citrus nematodes were found only in the non-fumigated field plots in both the native soil and buried bags. Also, no other species of live nematodes were found in any fumigated plots. At the SJVASC site, higher pruning dry weight was found in the methyl bromide, Telone C35 high dosage and low dosage with VIF or InLine with VIF treatment plots. The VIF tarp also significantly reduced fumigant emissions.

Technical Abstract: Many grape growers fumigate vineyard soils to control a wide range of pests, including nematodes, fungi, insects and weeds. The objective of this project was to test a range of methyl bromide alternatives for controlling plant pathogens and parasitic nematodes, as well as reduce emissions and document crop responses. Field trials were carried out at the USDA-ARS facility located near Parlier, CA in Oct. 2007 and Oct. 2008 and a commercial grape grower’s field near Fresno, CA in Nov. 2008, all field were previously planted with grapes. Replanting occurred after the fumigation trials and vine pruning biomass was measured in January 2009 when the vines reach dormancy for the 2007 trial. The experiment was repeated in the second year and the same grape variety was replanted in spring 2009 on an adjacent field. After the fumigation experiment, total Pythium spp. was reduced in all fumigated plots except the InLine bare soil treatment. For total Fusarium, only the MB treatment exhibited a significant treatment effect. 100% citrus nematode mortality was achieved in all fumigation treatments and no other species of live nematodes were found in any fumigated plots. Higher pruning dry weight was found in the methyl bromide, Telone C35 high dosage and low dosage with VIF or InLine with VIF treatment plots. The VIF tarp also significantly reduced fumigant emissions. Crop responses will be monitored for the replanted grapes in pruning biomass and cane diameter in winter 2009. Grape yield will be measured when there is sufficient growth. Annual soil sampling will be carried out to monitor nematode and pathogen population under different treatments.

Last Modified: 9/22/2014
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