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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONSERVATION SYSTEMS RESEARCH FOR IMPROVING ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND PRODUCER PROFITABILITY

Location: National Soil Dynamics Laboratory

Title: Single and Twin Row Peanut Production within Narrow and Wide Strip Tillage Systems

Authors
item BALKCOM, KIPLING
item Arriaga, Francisco
item Balkcom, Kris -
item BOYKIN, DEBORAH

Submitted to: Agronomy Journal
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 20, 2009
Publication Date: March 1, 2010
Citation: Balkcom, K.S., Arriaga, F.J., Balkcom, K.B., Boykin, D.L. 2010. Single and twin row peanut production within narrow and wide strip tillage systems. Agronomy Journal. 102:507-512.

Interpretive Summary: Increased production costs and potential benefits of maintaining surface residue has renewed interest in conservation tillage systems for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production. Scientists with USDA-ARS located at the National Soil Dynamics Laboratory in Auburn, AL and the Jamie Whitten Delta States Research Center in Stoneville, MS, in cooperation with Auburn Univ. initiated a study to determine remaining surface residue cover from rye (Secale cereale L.) or oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crops following two strip tillage systems (narrow vs wide) and planting operations with different row orientations (single vs twin). Plant populations, yields, and total sound mature kernels (TSMKs), a measure of peanut quality, for three peanut cultivars (‘Anorden’, ‘AP-3’, and ‘GA 02C’) across each strip tillage system and row orientation were examined across similar soil types in Alabama and northern Florida during the 2004 – 2006 growing seasons. The highest surface residue counts were observed for the narrow tillage system planted in single rows. Final plant stands were above recommended plant populations, except ‘Anorden’ planted in single rows. Peanut yields were also affected by strip tillage system and row orientation, but differences among cultivars were also observed. The cultivars ‘AP-3’ and ‘GA 02C’ yielded approximately 20% higher than ‘Anorden’. Total sound mature kernels were only affected by peanut cultivar. Mean values for TSMK ranged from 71 to 68, but the cultivar ‘GA 02C’ produced the highest quality peanut followed by ‘Anorden’, and ‘AP-3’. These results indicate that growers interested in utilizing twin rows for peanut production can also take advantage of a narrow strip tillage system that will maximize surface residue coverage and subsequent benefits.

Technical Abstract: Increased production costs and potential benefits of maintaining surface residue has renewed interest in conservation tillage systems for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production. We initiated a study to determine remaining surface residue cover from rye (Secale cereale L.) or oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crops following two strip tillage systems (narrow vs wide) and planting operations with different row orientations (single vs twin). We also compared plant populations, yields, and total sound mature kernels (TSMKs), a measure of peanut quality, for three peanut cultivars (‘Anorden’, ‘AP-3’, and ‘GA 02C’) across each strip tillage system and row orientation arranged in a split-split plot design. Seven site-years were examined across similar soil types in Alabama and northern Florida during the 2004 – 2006 growing seasons. The highest surface residue counts were observed for the narrow tillage system planted in single rows. Final plant stands were influenced by an interaction between cultivar and row orientation, with ‘Anorden’ planted in single rows being below recommended rates. Peanut yields were also affected by an interaction between strip tillage system and row orientation affected peanut yields, but differences among cultivars were also observed. The cultivars ‘AP-3’ and ‘GA 02C’ yielded approximately 20% higher than ‘Anorden’. Total sound mature kernels were only affected by peanut cultivar. Mean values for TSMK ranged from 71 to 68, but the cultivar ‘GA 02C’ produced the highest quality peanut followed by ‘Anorden’, and ‘AP-3’. These results indicate that growers interested in utilizing twin rows for peanut production can also take advantage of a narrow strip tillage system that will maximize surface residue coverage and subsequent benefits.

Last Modified: 9/29/2014
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