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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IMPACTS OF RISING ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE AND TEMPERATURE ON CROP GROWTH, REPRODUCTIVE PROCESSES, YIELD, AND SEED QUALITY

Location: Chemistry Research Unit

Title: Plant biomass and stem juice of the C4 sugarcane at elevated growth CO2 and temperature

Authors
item Vu, Joseph
item Allen, Leon

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: November 7, 2009
Publication Date: November 16, 2010
Citation: Vu, J.C., Allen Jr, L.H. 2010. Plant biomass and stem juice of the C4 sugarcane at elevated growth CO2 and temperature. In: McLaren, A.D., Peterson, G.H., Skujins, J., Paul, E.A. Handbook of plant and crop stress. Third Edition. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 1019-1030.

Interpretive Summary: Research on rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature has focused heavily on C3 crops such as soybean and rice. Few tests have been done on C4 crops such as sugarcane and maize. In this study, ARS scientists with the CMAVE Chemistry Research Unit in Gainesville, FL grew 4 sugarcane cultivars for 3 months at ambient and double-ambient CO2 and temperatures (T) of 1.5 and 6C higher than outside ambient; plant biomass, stem juice, and stem sugar were then evaluated for genotype response differences. Leaf area, plant biomass, stem juice, and stem sugar of all cultivars were increased at doubled CO2 or high T. Such increases were even greater, ranging from one to five-fold higher, at doubled CO2/high T combination than at ambient CO2/near-ambient T combination. The responses of biomass and stem sugar yield of each cultivar indicate that genotype differences among sugarcane will be encountered as a result of future rises in CO2 and changes in climate. An identification of the sugarcane cultivars carrying superior traits in growth performance and stem sugar yield, together with an improvement of such traits through both classical and new breeding methodology, should be carried out to meet global needs for food and biofuel at future CO2 and climate.

Technical Abstract: Plant biomass, stem juice and stem sugar were determined for four sugarcane cultivars grown for three months at daytime [CO2] of 360 (ambient) and 720 (doubled) ppm and temperatures (T) of 1.5 (near-ambient) and 6.0C higher than outside ambient T. Leaf area and biomass, stem biomass, stem juice and sugar, and whole plant biomass were increased at doubled [CO2] or high T, and such increases were even greater at doubled [CO2]/high T combination. Plants grown at doubled [CO2]/high T were one to five folds greater in leaf area, leaf biomass, stem biomass, whole plant biomass, stem juice, and stem sugar, when compared with plants at ambient [CO2]/near-ambient T combination. The results indicate that differences will be encountered among sugarcane genotypes in their responses to future increases in [CO2] and temperature. An identification of the sugarcane cultivars carrying superior traits in water use efficiency, leaf photosynthetic and growth performance, and stem sugar yield need to be accopmplished. Parallelly, an improvement in sugarcane stem sucrose and plant biomass yield through both classical and new breeding methodology should be carried out to meet global needs for food and bioenergy at future rises in atmospheric [CO2] and changes in climate.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014
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