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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: MANAGEMENT OF TEMPERATE FRUIT NUT AND SPECIALTY CROP GENETIC RESOURCES

Location: National Clonal Germplasm Repository (Corvallis, Oregon)

Title: Characterization and Cryopreservation of Malus sieversii Seeds

Authors
item Kushnarenko, Svetlana -
item Salnikov, Evgenyi -
item Nurtazin, Marat -
item Mukhitdinova, Zinat -
item Reed, Barbara

Submitted to: Asian and Australasian Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 5, 2009
Publication Date: July 10, 2010
Citation: Kushnarenko, S., Salnikov, E., Nurtazin, M., Mukhitdinova, Z., Reed, B.M. 2010. Characterization and Cryopreservation of Malus sieversii Seeds. Asian and Australasian Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology. 4:5-9.

Interpretive Summary: Kazakhstan is one of the centers of origin and evolution of apple . The main forest species is Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem., has important traits such as disease and insect resistance, cold hardiness, and fruit quality for breeding improved apples. The area of these unique wild forests is continually decreasing as a result of human activities. An expedition was held in September 2008 to collect and safeguard the genetic resources of Malus sieversii in Kazakhstan. Over 4400 seeds from the fruit of 34 trees were collected in the Zailyiski Alatau Mountains near Almaty (Bel-Bulak and Issyk Gorges). The trees where fruit was collected showed high variability in habit and fruit size, shape and flavor. Fruit color varied from yellow white to red. Seeds were variable in both color and length. We tested seed cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen for long-term storage of this wild Malus biodiversity. Seeds were air dried to a low moisture content. Seeds were directly immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN) for 30 min and rewarmed at room temperature to test the effect of LN exposure. Viability following LN as evaluated with a chemical test (2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride TZ) and ranged from 72.4% to 90.0%. this was similar to the controls and the germination tests. Germination tests indicated slightly but not significantly higher viability for LN exposed seeds, but germination vigor for LN exposed seeds was significantly higher than controls over the 6 week germination period. These results indicate that cryopreservation in LN is an option for long-term conservation of this important apple germplasm.

Technical Abstract: Kazakhstan is one of the centers of origin and evolution of apple (Malus). The main forest species is Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem., representatives of which have important traits such as disease and insect resistance, cold hardiness, and fruit quality. The area of these unique wild forests is continually decreasing as a result of human activities. An expedition was held in September 2008 to collect and safeguard the genetic resources of Malus sieversii in Kazakhstan. Over 4400 seeds from the fruit of 34 Malus sieversii accessions were collected in the Zailyiski Alatau Mountains near Almaty (Bel-Bulak and Issyk Gorges). The trees where fruit was collected showed high variability in habit and fruit size, shape and flavor. Fruit color varied from yellow white to red. Seeds were variable in both color and length. We tested seed cryopreservation for long-term storage of wild Malus biodiversity. Seeds were air dried to a mean moisture content of 8.23%. Seeds were directly immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN) for 30 min and rewarmed at room temperature to test the effect of LN exposure. Viability following LN as evaluated by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TZ) ranged from 72.4% to 90.0% and did not differ significantly from the controls or from the germination tests. Germination tests indicated slightly but not significantly higher viability for LN exposed seeds, but germination vigor for LN exposed seeds was significantly higher than controls over the 6 week germination period. These results indicate that cryopreservation in LN is an option for long-term conservation of this important germplasm.

Last Modified: 4/19/2014
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