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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CONTROL AND PROTECTION TOOLS FOR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF MOSQUITOES AND FILTH FLIES Title: Reducing Sand Fly Numbers in Leishmania Endemic Regions in Kenya with Insecticide Treated Camouflage Screening

Authors
item Linthicum, Kenneth
item Britch, Seth
item Clark, Jeff -
item N'Nonga, Daniel -
item Ngere, Francis -
item Kibet, Clifford -
item Anyamba, Assaf -
item Wynn, Willard
item Farooq, Muhammad -
item Smith, Vincent -
item Robinson, Cathy -
item Dunford, James -
item Walker, Todd -

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: January 9, 2009
Publication Date: April 5, 2009
Citation: Linthicum, K., Britch, S.C., Clark, J., N'Nonga, D., Ngere, F., Kibet, C., Anyamba, A., Wynn, W.W., Farooq, M., Smith, V.L., Robinson, C.A., Dunford, J.C., Walker, T. 2009. Reducing Sand Fly Numbers in Leishmania Endemic Regions in Kenya with Insecticide Treated Camouflage Screening. American Mosquito Control Association 2009 75th Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA; pgs. 29-30.

Technical Abstract: Current US military operations in deserts face persistent threats from sand flies that transmit human Leishmania. Methods to reduce the risk of human infection from leishmaniasis by reducing the number of sand fly vectors were investigated in Kenya. Bifenthrin treated and un-treated camouflage netting was used to construct 10 x 10 ft enclosures 6 ft high at a field station in Marigat, Kenya where san flies which readily transmit Leishmania are prevalent. Eight ft eucalyptus wood poles were used as the frame for the enclosures. Light traps baited with CO2 were used as surrogates for human hosts and were operated overnight from 1530-0700 on selected dates. Mortality was measured in 8 treated and noon-treated enclosures at various days post exposure during hot-dry and hot-heavy rainfall conditions in Marigat, Kenya. The percent reduct6ion in sand fly catch in treated enclosures as compared to untreated enclosures, a measure of relative efficacy of the treatment, was calculated. There was a reduction in sand flies in treated enclosures when compared to non-treated enclosures. Additionally, the difference in percentage found dead suggest that the toxic barrier is associated with a higher proportion of sand flies that die after being trapped, as compared to untreated enclosures. Phlebotomus duboscqi, P. martini, and Segentomyia schwetzi are thought to be the predominant sand fly species collected within the enclosures but identifications are pending.

Last Modified: 10/24/2014
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