INVASION BIOLOGY OF INVASIVE SPECIES: BIOCONTROL AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES FOR EXOTIC INSECT PESTS, WITH EMPHASIS ON ASIAN LONGHORNED BEETLE
Location: Beneficial Insects Introduction Research
Title: Asian Longhorned Beetle: Renewed threat to north-eastern USA and implications worldwide
Submitted to: International Pest Control
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 5, 2009
Publication Date: January 15, 2009
Citation: Smith, M.T., Wu, J. 2009. Asian Longhorned Beetle: Renewed threat to north-eastern USA and implications worldwide. International Pest Control. 50(6):311-316.
Interpretive Summary: The Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) is native to China and Korea, and has become a serious invasive insect pest of urban forests in North America and Europe, with a new infestation discovered in Worcester, Massachusetts in July 2008. Over 4,000 infested trees have been found in three months of surveying, with numbers expected to top 15,000 trees. Unlike the previous four infestations, the infestation in Worcester has expanded beyond urban forests into the surrounding natural forests, and is very close to urban and natural forests in the five surrounding north eastern where maples trees are very abundant. Given the seriousness of this infestation, federal, state and local agencies, with assistance from private companies and citizens, are working jointly in the eradication program. If eradication is to have any chance of success the full brunt of the existing methods must be brought to bear, including a public awareness blitz; improved visual survey methods; sentinel trees for detection of adult beetles; and insecticides and fungal bands for control of adult beetles and protection of trees from attack. In addition, development for artificial lures for early detection and biological control for immediate and sustained control must be accelerated. These same strategies are urgently needed for the Citrus Longhorned Beetle, a sister species of ALB.
The Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB; ANOPLOPHORA GLABRIPENNIS Motschulsky) is a serious invasive pest of urban forests in North America and Europe, with infestations in New York, Illinois, New Jersey, Toronto, Canada, Germany, Austria, Italy and France. In July 2008 a new ALB infestation was discovered in Worcester, Massachusetts, and unlike previous infestations, this infestation has expanded beyond urban forests into the surrounding natural forests. This infestation is in very close proximity to urban and natural forests in Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connecticut, which are dominated by host tree species preferred by ALB, particularly ACER species.
Over 4,000 infested trees have been found within the first three months of survey, with the current estimated number expected to top 15,000 trees, and the regulated area is now over 62 sq mi. Therefore, the full arsenal of existing survey, detection and control strategies must be brought to bear by federal, state and local agencies if this ALB infestation has any chance of eradication. These include: (1) outreach and education of private citizens and companies for engaging and stimulating their participation and ownership in the eradication program, particularly for detection of infested trees and adult beetles, and for compliance with rules that limit the movement of infested wood (e.g. fire wood); (2) the improved methods for visual survey for infested trees and the models of population spread for more accurately establishing survey boundaries and for early detection of outlying incipient satellite infestations; (3) sentinel trees for early detection of adult beetles and the degree day model for timing the implementation of detection and control strategies targeting adult beetles; (4) systemic and contact insecticides for control of adult beetles and protecting host trees from attack; and (5) entomopathogenic fungal bands for control of adult beetles. In addition, research and develop of technologies for early detection and rapid respond must be accelerated, including artificial lures for early detection of adult beetles and biological control, including both introduced and native species that are host specific, and that are highly efficient at locating and controlling ALB. These same strategies are urgently needed for the Citrus Longhorned Beetle, a sister species of ALB.