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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: FIBER EXTRUSION TO IMPROVE USE AND PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL BYPRODUCTS Title: Determining Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

Authors
item Rosentrater, Kurt
item Otieno, A - NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIV

Submitted to: International Journal of Modern Engineering
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 16, 2008
Publication Date: December 18, 2008
Citation: Rosentrater, K.A., Otieno, A.W. 2008. Determining Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics. International Journal of Modern Engineering. 9(1):13-18.

Interpretive Summary: This study reports on a collaborative investigation between the USDA-ARS and Northern Illinois University, which examined the incorporation of distillers dried grains with solubles (also known as DDGS) as bio-fillers in phenolic resin compression molded composites. Specifically, this paper reports on the results of a machinability study of these composites. Three types of samples were studied: 100%, 75%, and 50% phenolic composites. A milling operation was carried out using a fixed depth of cut of 2.0 mm, using a 12.5 mm diameter two-fluted end-mill. The cutting speed varied between 120 and 160 m/min, at feed rates between 200 and 300 mm/min. Surface roughness measurements were taken after each combination of feed, speed and depth of cut was used to mill the sample. Mathematical models for surface roughness were developed in terms of speed and feed using response surface methodology (RSM). Additionally, the significance of the speed and feed variables on the surface roughness has been established using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Surface roughness was also examined with surface plots. Contour surface plots of 100% phenolic samples show low surface roughness values at high speeds and low feeds. Contour surface plots of 75% phenolic samples do not follow any particular trend, but in general lower surface roughness values are obtained at high speeds and low feeds. Contour surface plots of 50% phenolic samples show low surface roughness values at low speeds and high feeds.

Technical Abstract: In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of corn ethanol processing byproducts (i.e., DDGS) as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling of various grades of this material. Three types of samples were studied: 100% (0% DDGS), 75% (25% DDGS), and 50% (50% DDGS) phenolic samples. The milling operation was carried out with a fixed depth of cut of 2.0 mm using a 12.5 mm diameter two-fluted end-mill. The cutting speed was varied between 120 and 160 m/min at feed rates between 200 and 300 mm/min. Surface roughness measurements were taken after each combination of feed and speed. Mathematical models for surface roughness have been developed in terms of speed and feed at constant depth of cut by response surface methodology (RSM); the significance of the speed and feed on the surface roughness has been established with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for all three types of samples. The optimum cutting conditions were obtained by constructing contours of constant surface roughness using MINITAB statistical software.

Last Modified: 10/21/2014
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