Page Banner

United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: IMPROVING CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH WITH DIET Title: Substitution of vegetable oil for a partially-hydrogenated fat favorably alters cardiovascular disease risk factors in moderately hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women

Authors
item Vega-Lopez, Sonia - JM USDA HNRCA @ TUFTS
item Matthan, Nirupa - JM USDA HNRCA @ TUFTS
item Ausman, Lynne - JM USDA HNRCA @ TUFTS
item Ai, Masumi - JM USDA HNRCA @ TUFTS
item Otokozawa, Seiko - JM USDA HNRCA @ TUFTS
item Schaefer, Ernst
item Lichtenstein, Alice

Submitted to: Atherosclerosis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 28, 2009
Publication Date: November 1, 2009
Citation: Vega-Lopez, S., Matthan, N.R., Ausman, L.M., Ai, M., Otokozawa, S., Schaefer, E., Lichtenstein, A.H. 2009. Substitution of vegetable oil for a partially-hydrogenated fat favorably alters cardiovascular disease risk factors in moderately hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. Atherosclerosis. 207(1):208-212.

Interpretive Summary: Consumption of high levels of partially-hydrogenated fat is associated with increased risk of developing heart disease. The purpose of this work was to compare one type of partially-hydrogenated fat and an alternative fat that is currently in use. We used a double-blind cross-over design to compare the effect of corn oil or partially-hydrogenated soybean oil in 30 postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older who have LDL-cholesterol concentrations greater than 120 mg/dL. These women were randomly assigned to each of two diet phases that were 35 days each. There was a 2 week intervening period between the two diet phases. All food and beverage consumed by the study subjects was provided to them in amounts calculated and later confirmed to maintain body weight. The test fats, corn or partially-hydrogenated soybean oil, were incorporated throughout the diet and contributed two-thirds of fat intake each day. The primary outcomes for this study included fasting and non-fasting lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein, and fasting high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations. The secondary outcomes for this study included fasting small dense LDL (sdLDL)-cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RemLC), glycated albumin, adiponectin and immunoreactive insulin concentrations, and endogenous cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activities. Small dense LDL, glycated albumin, adiponectin and immunoreactive insulin are measures associated with increased risk of heart disease. LCAT and CEPT are proteins involved with the metabolism of HDL (good cholesterol) in plasma. As assessed at the end of each phase, relative to the corn oil-enriched diet, the partially-hydrogenated soybean oil enriched diet resulted in higher mean fasting total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, apo B, Lp(a), sdLDL-cholesterol, RemLC, and adiponectin concentrations, and had no significant effect on fasting HDL-cholesterol, apo AI, triglyceride, hsCRP, glycated albumin and immunoreactive insulin concentrations and endogenous CETP or LCAT activities. The changes observed in non-fasting lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations were similar to those observed in the fasting state. From these data we conclude that the replacement of partially-hydrogenated soybean oil with corn oil favorably affected a range of heart disease risk factors and is an appropriate option to reduce trans fatty acids intake in the general population.

Technical Abstract: Partially-hydrogenated fat is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Acceptable alternatives must be adjudicated. The objective was to assess the effect of replacing partially-hydrogenated soybean oil with an alternative currently in use. Using a double-blind cross-over design, 30 postmenopausal women >/=50 y with LDL-cholesterol concentrations >/=120 mg/dL were randomly assigned to each of two 35-day phases; all food and beverage was provided to maintain body weight. Corn or partially-hydrogenated soybean oil was incorporated throughout the diet and contributed two-thirds of fat. Primary outcomes included fasting and non-fasting lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein, and fasting high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations. Secondary outcomes included fasting small dense LDL (sdLDL)-cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RemLC), glycated albumin, adiponectin and immunoreactive insulin concentrations, and endogenous cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activities. Assessed at the end of each phase, relative to the corn oil-enriched diet, the partially-hydrogenated soybean oil enriched diet resulted in higher mean fasting total cholesterol (7%; P<0.0001), LDL-cholesterol (11%; P<0.0001), VLDL-cholesterol (11%; P=0.052), apo B (10%; P<0.0001), Lp(a) (5%; P<0.0001), sdLDL-cholesterol (21%; P=0.001), RemLC (28%; P=0.007) and adiponectin (2%; P=0.048 ) concentrations, and had no significant effect on fasting HDL-cholesterol, apo AI, triglyceride, hsCRP, glycated albumin and immunoreactive insulin concentrations and endogenous CETP or LCAT activities. Changes in non-fasting lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations were similar to the fasting state. The replacement of partially-hydrogenated soybean oil with corn oil favorably affects a range of CVD risk factors, hence it is an appropriate option to reduce trans fatty acids intake.

Last Modified: 10/20/2014
Footer Content Back to Top of Page