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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: AREAWIDE PEST MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES IN HAWAII

Location: Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research

Title: Update on the Susceptibility of Avocado to Invasive Alien Fruit Flies (Tephritidae) on the Island of Hawaii.

Authors
item Klungness, Lester
item Vargas, Roger
item Jang, Eric
item Mau, Ronald - UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII
item Kinney, Kealoha - UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII

Submitted to: Hawaiian Entomological Society Proceedings
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 28, 2009
Publication Date: June 1, 2009
Citation: Klungness, L.M., Vargas, R.I., Jang, E.B., Mau, R.F., Kinney, K. 2009. Susceptibility of ripe Avocado to Invasive Alien Fruit Flies (Tephritidae) on the Island of Hawaii. Hawaiian Entomological Society Proceedings. 41:1-13 2009

Interpretive Summary: The Avocado Growers Association on the Island of Hawaii requested that the USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service reconsider the possibility of approving the export of untreated avocado to the continental United States of America. In response, as part of the Hawaii Area Wide Pest Management Program, the Agricultural Research Service undertook a survey to supplement the original survey conducted by Liquido et. al. (1995). This consisted of deploying lure traps for the three invasive species (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), B. cucurbitae (Coquillet), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) and protein bait traps for general detection and quantification of localized fruit fly populations. The survey was concentrated in the Kona District and the orchards. Results of the year of trap sampling indicated that populations of fruit flies varied substantially among avocado orchards. C. capitata was the most prevalent species year round. B. dorsalis was captured considerably less frequently, although in mid-October female oriental flies reached numbers comparable to those of C. capitata in some orchards. B. cucurbitae was the least prevalent species in avocado orchards. Adult fly emergence from the ground fruit sample was .0000125 B. dorsalis flies/g of fruit and no C. capitata emerged from any fruit sample. That is a fruit infestation rate of 0.385%, and a rate of 0.771% larvae per fruit. All of these fruits sampled had some damage that would have excluded them from shipment by previous export criteria.

Technical Abstract: The Avocado Growers Association on the Island of Hawaii requested that the USDA Animal Plant Health Inspection Service reconsider the possibility of approving the export of untreated avocado to the continental United States of America. In response, as part of the Hawaii Area Wide Pest Management Program, the Agricultural Research Service undertook a survey to supplement the original survey conducted by Liquido et. al. (1995). This consisted of deploying lure traps for the three invasive species (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), B. cucurbitae (Coquillet), and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) and protein bait traps for general detection and quantification of localized fruit fly populations. The survey was concentrated in the Kona District and the orchards were mapped using a geographic information systems approach. In addition, between 9 August 2006 until 22 May 2007, a sample of 519 avocado fruit were collected from the ground and held individually to determine the presence of any viable fruit flies. Results of the year of trap sampling indicated that populations of fruit flies varied substantially among avocado orchards. C. capitata was the most prevalent species year round (0.456 ± 0.130 female flies/trap/day) based on female flies captured with protein bait. B. dorsalis was captured considerably less frequently (0.096 ± 0.068 female flies/trap/day), although in mid-October female oriental flies reached numbers comparable to those of C. capitata in some orchards. B. cucurbitae was the least prevalent species in avocado orchards, averaging 0.034 ±0.006 female flies/trap/day. Adult fly emergence from the ground fruit sample was 1.25e-5 ± 8.89e-6 B. dorsalis flies/g of fruit and no C. capitata emerged from any fruit sample. That is a fruit infestation rate of 0.385%, and a rate of 0.771% larvae per fruit. All of these fruits sampled had some damage that would have excluded them from shipment by previous export criteria.

Last Modified: 8/21/2014
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