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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: ENHANCING DISPERSION OF LOW VAPOR PRESSURE FUMIGANTS IN SOIL & REDUCING EMISSIONS TO THE ATMOSPHERE FOR IMPROVED EFFICACY & ENV. PROTECTION

Location: Chemistry Research Unit

Title: Nematode, Fungi, and Weed Control using Telone C35 and Colored Plastic Mulches

Authors
item Thomas, John - UF, SOIL & WATER SCI DEPT
item Ou, Li-Tse - UF, SOIL & WATER SCI DEPT
item Allen, Leon
item Vu, Joseph
item Dickson, D. - UF, NEMATOLOGY/ENTOMOL

Submitted to: Crop Protection
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 2, 2008
Publication Date: April 1, 2009
Citation: Thomas, J.E., Ou, L., Allen Jr, L.H., Vu, J.C., Dickson, D.W. 2009. Nematode, Fungi, and Weed Control using Telone C35 and Colored Plastic Mulches. Crop Protection. 28(4):338-342.

Interpretive Summary: In the past, methyl bromide soil fumigation was used to control weeds, fungi, and nematodes. ARS Scientists and University of Florida collaborators investigated an alternative treatment system for pest control that used various wavelength-selective colored plastic mulches, with and without a fumigant, Telone C35 (65% 1,3- dichloropropene plus 35% chloropicrin). These mulches controlled weeds by a thickness that prevented nutsedge penetration, by retaining fumigant longer, or by transmitting infra-red and red light while restricting other photosynthetic wavelengths. Infra-red and red light changed the morphology of nutsedges from a hard plastic-penetrating point to a soft leafy non-penetrating structure. This alternative system was designed to control: 1) nutsedge through wavelength-selective plastic mulches, 2) fungi by chloropicrin, and 3) weeds and nematodes by 1,3-dichloropropene. For fumigated plots, metalized polyethylene film with Telone C35 had a crop yield that was statistically equivalent to that from methyl bromide with a black virtually impermeable film. Finally, if no chemicals could be used, then the data suggest that metalized polyethylene mulch would be the best choice for weed control and crop yield.

Technical Abstract: Methyl bromide fumigation controls weeds, fungi, and nematodes. An alternative treatment system was investigated that used various colored plastic mulches with Telone C35 (65% 1,3- dichloropropene plus 35% chloropicrin). These mulches controlled weeds by a thickness that prevented nutsedge penetration, by retaining fumigant longer, or by transmitting infra-red and red light while restricting other photosynthetic wavelengths. Infra-red and red light changed the morphology of nutsedges from a hard plastic-penetrating point to a soft leafy non-penetrating structure. This alternative to methyl bromide was investigated for control of: 1) weeds through wavelength-selective plastic mulches, 2) fungi by chloropicrin, and 3) weeds and nematodes by 1,3-dichloropropene. For fumigated plots, metalized polyethylene film with Telone C35 had a crop yield that was statistically equivalent to that from methyl bromide with a black virtually impermeable film. The use of fumigation with plastic mulches led to an average increase of 40% in crop yield compared to non-fumigated beds. Finally, if no pesticide, fungicide, or herbicide could be used, then Metalized PE mulch would be the best choice for weed control, crop yield, and availability.

Last Modified: 4/18/2014
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