Title: The rhizosphere: a playground and battlefield for soilborne pathogens and beneficial microorganisms Authors
|Raaijmakers, Jos - WAGENINGEN UNIVERISTY|
|Steinberg, Christian - UNIVERSITE DE BOURGOGNE|
|Alabouvette, Claude - UNIVERSITE DE BOURGOGNE|
|Moenne-Loccoz, Yvan - UNIVERSITE LYON 1|
Submitted to: Plant and Soil
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: February 20, 2008
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Many microorganisms interact in the zone around the roots of plants. The plant provides exuduates or nutrients to support populations of both beneficial and pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, along with microfauna. The outcome of these interactions can affect the health of plants.
Technical Abstract: The rhizosphere is a hot spot of microbial interactions as exudates released by plant roots are a main food source for microorganisms and a driving force of their population density and activities. The rhizosphere harbors many organisms that have a neutral effect on the plant, but also attracts organisms that exert deleterious or beneficial effects on the plant. Microorganisms that adversely affect plant growth and health are the pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, bacteria and nematodes. Most of the soilborne pathogens are adapted to grow and survive in the bulk soil, but the rhizosphere is the playground and infection court where the pathogen establishes a parasitic relationship with the plant. The rhizosphere is also a battlefield where the complex rhizosphere community, both microflora and microfauna, interact with pathogens and influence the outcome of pathogen infection. A wide range of microorganisms are beneficial to the plant and include nitrogen-fixing bacteria, endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi, and plant growth-promoting bacteria and fungi. This review focuses on the population dynamics and activity of soilborne pathogens and beneficial microorganisms. Specific attention is given to mechanisms involved in the tripartite interactions between beneficial microorganisms, pathogens and the plant. We also discuss how agricultural practices affect pathogen and antagonist populations and how these practices can be adopted to promote plant growth and health.