Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: November 1, 2006
Publication Date: January 1, 2007
Citation: Heird, W.C. 2007. Nutritional needs. In: Kliegman, R.M., Jenson, H.B., Behrman, R.E., Stanton, B.F., editors. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th edition. Saunders Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA. p. 209-214. Technical Abstract: The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance needs incident to the higher metabolic and nutrient turnover rates of infants and children compared with adults. Because the rapid rates of growth are accompanied by marked developmental changes in organ function and composition, failure to provide sufficient nutrients during this time is likely to have adverse effects on development as well as growth. Provisions of these special nutrient needs, particularly during early life, is complicated by the young infant’s lack of teeth, immature digestive and metabolic processes, and dependence on caregivers.