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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: DETECTION, CONTROL AND AREA-WIDE MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES

Location: Tropical Crop and Commodity Protection Research

Title: Effectiveness of GF-120 NF Fruit Fly Bait as a Suppression Tool for Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Author
item McQuate, Grant

Submitted to: Journal of Applied Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 13, 2009
Publication Date: July 1, 2009
Citation: Mcquate, G.T. 2009. Effectiveness of GF-120 NF Fruit Fly Bait as a Suppression Tool for Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 133: 444-448.

Interpretive Summary: Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly of primarily Asian distribution that has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). It primarily infests solanaceous fruits, so has the potential to impact production of crops such as peppers, eggplant, African eggplant and tomatoes. Infestation of these crops leads to damage and loss of fruits and may necessitate the use of quarantine treatments to permit export. Although a number of valuable techniques have been developed for use in suppressing various tephritid fruit fly species, little research has been done to apply these techniques to suppression of B. latifrons. Protein-based bait sprays, incorporating a toxicant, have proved to be effective in suppressing many tephritid fruit fly species, but there is variability in how effective different bait sprays are among different fruit fly species. One environmentally friendly protein bait that is now commercially available is GF-120NF Fruit Fly Bait, a bait that incorporates the toxicant, spinosad. Preliminary toxicology and field attraction tests have suggested that there is good likelihood that GF-120NF Fruit Fly Bait would be effective in controlling B. latifrons. Consequently, we sought to conduct confirmatory tests in field cages using wild flies, the results of which are presented here. We introduced wild flies into field cages following application of bait sprays to fruiting Anaheim chili pepper plants. Post-spray infestation rate in the treatment cages (four replications) was always zero and no live flies were detected in the treatment cages at the end of the trial. Alternatively, fruits in the unsprayed control cages were infested and live flies were detected at the end of the trial. The results of this study provide evidence that GF-120NF Fruit Fly Bait should be effective in suppressing B. latifrons populations in the field.

Technical Abstract: Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly of primarily Asian distribution that has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). It primarily infests solanaceous fruits, so has the potential to impact production of crops such as peppers (Capsicum annuum L. and C. frutescens L.), eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), African eggplant (S. aethiopicum L.) and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Because little work has been done to develop suppression techniques for this fruit fly species, field cage tests of the effectiveness of a commercially available bait spray, GF-120NF Fruit Fly Bait, against wild B. latifrons were conducted. Sexually mature B. latifrons adults (75 male and 75 female) were introduced to both a control cage and a treatment cage, each of which held six fruiting Anaheim chili pepper (Capsicum annum L.) plants. Fruits were harvested, and assessed for infestation, both before and after the application of the bait spray in the treatment cage. There was no difference in infestation rate between control and treatment cages before the application of the bait spray, whereas there was a significantly lower infestation rate in the treatment cage following the application of the bait spray. Post-spray infestation rate in the treatment cages (four replications) was always zero and no live flies were detected in the treatment cages at the end of the trial. The results of this study provide evidence that GF-120NF Fruit Fly Bait should be effective in suppressing B. latifrons populations in the field.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014
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